TANITA, T., KOIKE, K. and FUJIMURA, S. Indirect Estimation of FiltrationVariables in Rat Lungs Calculated by Protein Concentration or Osmotic PressureMethod. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 77-83 - We reported a new way for estimating filtration variables: K(filtration coefficient), Ppmv (perimicrovascular pressure) and σ (protein reflection coefficient), from 3 different measurements of weight gain at two protein concentrations of perfusate (Cmv) and at two vascular pressures (Pvasc). We used the Starling equation for calculating those variables using two different formulas which expressed that all protein moves by convection. In this report, we compared those two formulas: 1)1-σ=Πpmv/Πmv, which is already reported (Tanita et al. 1990), and 2)1-σ=Cpmv/Cmv. We measured filtration rate (Q) by a gravimetric method in isolated rat lung lobes in zone 1 conditions (alveolar pressure=20 cmH2O) at two vascular pressures, Pvasc=15 or 8cmH2O and perfused the lobes with plasma containing a low or a high concentration of protein. By extrapolating the log of the rate of weight gain to t=0, we obtain the initial filtration rate. Cmv was measured and Πmv was estimated by Yamada's equation (Yamada et al. 1985). The reflection coefficient calculated in 1-σ=Πpmv/Πmv method is computed 10% higher than that in 1-σ=Cpmv/Cmv method. However, the filtration coefficient or the perimicrovascular pressure calculated in either method was identical. We conclude that filtration variables can be estimated easily by Π method and those variables are comparable to those estimated by C method which are theoretically more acculate but more complicated in calculation.
TAKAHASHI, Y., HIRATA, Y., YOKOYAMA, S., ISHII, N., NUNES, L., LUE, T.F. and TANAGHO, E.A. Loss of Penile Erectile Response to Intracavernous Injectionof Acetylcholine in Castrated Dog. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 85-91-Castrated dogs showed a slightly weak erectile response to cavernous nerve stimulation compared with normal dogs. Intracavernous injection of acetylcholine induced a dose-dependent increase of intracavernous pressure in normal dogs, however, there was almost no penile response in castrated dogs. Histological study showed a significant higher ratio of collagen tissue/smooth muscle in the corpus cavernosum of castrated dogs, but no difference in acetylcholine-esterase staining and the number of endothelial cells lining the sinusoidal spaces between castrated and normal dogs. These results indicate that the corpus cavernosum of castrated dogs nearly lost responsiveness to acetylcholine probably due to a high ratio of collagen/smooth muscle fibers and that there are different mechanisms for erectile response to nerve stimulation and intracavernous injection of acetylcholine.
UMEDA, F., YAMAUCHI, T., ISHII, H., NAKASHIMA, N., HISATOMI, A. and NAWATA, H. Serum 1, 5-Ahhydro-D-Glucitol and Glycemic Control in Patientswith Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 93-100 - Serum 1, 5-anhydro-D-glucitol (AG) levels, which have been reported to decrease specifically in diabetics, were measured in 102 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The mean of serum AG levels was 7.9±0.7μg/ml (mean±S.E.). It was found a significant negative correlation between serum AG level and HbA1c or fasting blood sugar level. The decrease in serum AG levels inversely correlated with the extent of glycemic control in the patients with NIDDM. Additionally, the changes of serum AG levels negatively correlated with the changes of HbA1c levels during long-term (2 years) treatment. Furthermore, serum AG levels were compared between the patients with and without diabetic complication such as retinopathy, proteinuria or neuropathy. It was found that each group of the patients with complication had significantly decreased serum AG level compared with the complication free group. On the other hand, however, no differences were found in serum AG levels corrected by HbA1c levels using the linear regression formula between the group of the patients with and without diabetic complication.
ODA, S., FUJIMURA, H., SASAKI, Y, and OHNEDA, A. α2-Adrenergic Modulationof Glucagon and Insulin Secretions in Sheep. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 101-110 - To investigate the effects of α2-adrenergic receptors on the secretions of pancreatic glucagon and insulin, clonidine, midaglizole and yohimbine were intravenously administered in four conscious sheep. Clonidine infusion at a dosage of 1.0nmol/kg/min produced hyperglucagonemia, hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Midaglizole or yohimbine was infused for 30min, at doses of 5, 10 and 50nmol/kg/min during the clonidine infusion. The highest yohimbine infusion (50nmol/kg/min) blocked the clonidine-induced responses of glucagon, insulin and glucose. On the other hand, the midaglizole (50nmol/kg/min) infusion brought about no statistical effect on the clonidine-induced responses of glucagon, insulin and glucose. The α2-adrenergic antagonistic effect of midaglizole was clearly less than that of yohimbine in the present experiments. It is concluded that the glucagon secretion is enhanced and the insulin release is inhibited by α2-adrenergic stimulation in conscious sheep.
AIHARA, M., KONUMA, Y., OKAWA, K., KOMAI, R., KUDO, I., MORIOKA, R., KARIYA, K., TAKAMI, H., SADWADA, Y., MUNAKATA, A. and YOSHIDA, Y. BlueRubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation andThrombocytopenia: Successful Treatment wiith High-Dose Intravenous Gamaglobulin. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 111-117 - A 63-year-old woman was diagnosed as having blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Hematological data showed typical DIC: PT 13.2sec, activated PTT 55.3sec, fibrinogen 20mg/100ml, FDP-E 928ng/ml, D-dimer 3, 477ng/ml, platelet count 25×103/μl. Although hypofibrinogenemia was successfully controlled by the continuous infusion of heparin, 10, 000 units/day, thrombocytopenia has continued. Based on shortened platelet life span, high level of platelet associated IgG, and increased number of megakaryocyte in the bone marrow, the thrombocytopenia was thought to be due to antiplatelet antibody. Her platelet count returned to normal after intravenous infusion of high-dose gamma globulin (IVIg, Sandoz) at the dose of 400mg/kg for 2-5 days, while corticosteroid, Gabexate mesilate, synthetic thrombin inhibitor MD-805, urinastatin and warfarin had no effect. Thus, DIC or thrombocytopenia may become a serious complication in some patients with BRBNS and IVIg may be useful for correcting thrombocytopenia in the patient.
NAKATSUKA, H., IMAI, Y., ABE, K., NAGAI, K., IKEDA, M., SATO, H., SASAKI, S., MINAMI, N., MUNAKATA, M., SAKUMA, H., HASHIMOTO, J., SEKINO, H., IMAI, K. and YOSHINAGA, K. A Population Study of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in a RuralCommunity in Northern Japan. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 119-127 - A cross sectional survey was performed on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in a rural community in northern Japan. ABP was measured in 468 participants (148 men and 320 women, or 27.3% of the ≥20 year-old population in the study region) with a Colin ABPM 630, an ABP monitoring system. ABP was determined every 30min for 24hr. All-day average of 24hr ambulatory systolic, (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in these subjects were 121.5±11.8 and 71.7±8.0 mmlg (mean±S.D.), respectively. Ambulatory SBP and DBP levels increased gradually with an increase in age in both sexes. The age dependent increase in SBP was, however, extremely small in men compared with that in the casual SBP of the ordinary Japanese reported. The minimal age-dependent increase in ambulatory SBP in men reflects a high ambulatory SBP in those below 50 years-old as well as a minimal increase in ambulatory SBP in those over 50. Ambulatory SBPs in women were lower than those in men until they reach the age of 50 years. Ambulatory SBP levels in men and women were similar after their 60's. Ambulatory DBP tended to fall or remain at the same level after 60 years-old. Thus, a greater pulse pressure was observed in elderly subjects. Casual SBP and DBP in the ordinary Japanese were significantly higher than the daytime average ambulatory SBP and DBP in all age groups of both sexes in the population except those in their 20's. The result suggests that ABP has different clinical characteristics and may have a different clinical significance from casual BP.
MURASE, T., OKUBO, M. and HARA, M. Does Chylomicronemia Cause Atherosclerosis. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 129-134 - Does chylomicronemia cause atherosclerosis? To directly address this clinically important problem, we conducted experiments in guinea pigs which lack apolipoprotein CII and develop chylomicronemia when they are fed a high-fat diet. After 6-12 months on a high-fat diet, guinea pigs were sacrificed, and subjected to histopathological and ultrastructual examination. Both the aorta and the coronary arteries revealed no atherosclerotic changes in all 4 animals examined: the endothelium was intact, and neither lipid-laden foam cells nor migrating cells were present within the arterial wall. Our studies indicate that chylomicronemia does not predispose to atherosclerosis.
WATANABE, Y., ODA, M., SHIMIZU, J., HAYASHI, Y., OHTA, Y., IWA, T., TONAMI, N. and HISADA, K. Functional Advantage of Parenchymal-SparingSurgery for Early Hilar Lung Cancer. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1991, 163 (2), 135-148 - In a group of 27 patients with early hilar lung cancer, standard sleeve lobectomy was performed in 14 cases, standard lobectomy in 9 cases, and another 4 patients underwent parenchymal-sparing operations (2 had sleeve segmentectomy, 1 had sleeve middle lobectomy, and 1 had left second carinal resection). The changes of conventional pulmonary function tests and regional pulmonary function were compared between patients undergoing sleeve lobectomy and those undergoing parenchymal-sparing surgery. The parameters used for the conventional lung function tests were FVC, %FVC, FEV1.0, and %FEV1.0. For the evaluation of regional pulmonary function, perfusion scans using 99mTc-MAA and ventilation scans using 133Xe were performed. The decrease of FVC in the sleeve lobectomy group (n=5) was 724±182.7ml, whereas that in the parenchymal- sparing surgery group (n=4) was 367.5±52.1ml, a significant difference. Both the FEV1.0 and %FEV1.0 showed no marked changes in both groups between the preoperative and postoperative values. Perfusion and ventilation scans in the parenchymal-sparing group showed a superior result in comparison with sleeve lobectomy group. All the patients undergoing parenchymal-sparing operations survived over the long term. It was thus concluded that parenchymal-sparing surgery can be applied to carefully selected patients with tiny localized cancers.