Electron microscopy of biopsy specimens from the small intestines in infants and children with various gastrointestinal disturbances revealed that the intercellular space of the mucosal epithelium was often filled with electron dense materials. Here apposed cell membranes were arranged almost parallel with each other. The dense materials also filled the space just subjacent to the epithelium to form a thick, dense layer in which the basal lamina was completely buried. The gap junctions were especially well developed in the epithelia filled with these materials. Long-period fasting of patients seemed to facilitate the occurrence of the dense materials and the formation of gap junctions.
In order to quantify the changes of feed-back effect of estrogen on the. release of pituitary gonadotropin which is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian system, the responses of LH and FSH to the intravenous infusion of 20 mg of conjugated estrogen were studied in 49 post-menopausal and 20 castrated women. In the group of women within 1 year after menopause, serum LH levels were elevated following the infusion of the conjugated estrogen. The responses of serum LH and FSH levels were different between post-menopausal and castrated women. The data indicated that the difference between the two groups was probably due to the difference of secretion patterns of the gonadotropins in post-menopausal and castrated women.
Three monkeys were trained to make rapid wrist extension on presentation of a cue light. After training the animal sufficiently, unit activity was recorded from the cortical efferent zones corresponding to the wrist extensors. Most neurons in the wrist extensor zone were increased in their discharge rate during the wrist extension. Their activation pattern, especially the onset time, varied among different neurons. The earliest neuron was activated 65 fusee before the EMG onset of the wrist extensors, while the latest did 30 msec after the EMG onset. About 80% of them activated before the EMG onset. In contrast, variation of the discharge onset of each neuron was rather small and 5-15 msec in quartile deviation. These findings may suggest that each neuron in the cortical efferent zone functions in different timing in the voluntary phasic contraction of the target muscle.
Electrophysiological studies were performed in five patients, two with and three without Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. In the former patients group, the paroxysmal supraven-tricular tachycardia (PSVT) was concluded to reflect the circus movement utilizing the normal atrioventricular (A-V) conduction system for antegrade conduction and the Kent bundle for the retrograde conduction. Ventriculoatrial conduction time (VACT) was measured during ventricular pacing before and after the administration of atropine sulfate. In patients without WPW syndrome, the VACT prolonged and subsequently second degree ventriculoatrial block developed when the pacing rate was increased progressively and atropine facilitated the retrograde conduction, suggesting the ventriculoatrial conduction took place via the normal A-V pathway. In contrast, the VACT in patients with WPW syndrome remained unchanged during ventricular pacing at rates of 145/min and more both before and after atropine, indicating the retrograde conduction was taking place through the Kent bundle. It is discussed that the analysis of the VACT before and after atropine serves as an aid to differentiate the underlying mechanisms of PSVT in patients with WPW syndrome.
Intra-His bundle block was produced by ligation of the anterior septal artery in dogs. The duration of the His bundle potential was gradually increased following the ligation, and an obvious splitting of the His bundle deflection was observed thereafter. Finally, spontaneous second and/or third degree intra-His bundle block appeared. Before the development of spontaneous block, a pacing induced intra-His bundle block was observed when the duration of the His bundle deflection was prolonged approximately to twice the control value. Careful measurements of the intervals between two split His bundle deflections (H1-H2) in spontaneous as well as in pacing induced block revealed atypical Wenckebach periodicity in all analyzed periods except in one. Repeating and/or transient decreases of H1-H2 intervals were frequently observed as atypical findings.
Resting plasma renin activity (PRA) and PRA after the load of furosemide i. v. and two-hour's upright posture were studied on 139 healthy normotensive subjects and 200 patients with essential hypertension. Regarding the age factor, the estimated values in control subjects were very low in the advanced ages over 60 years, while no significant differences were found in the subjects aged from 20 to 59 years. In essential hypertension, a similar relationship between renin and aging was observed. The patients with essential hypertension were classified into 3 groups according to the resting PRA values; low, normal and high. There were no signi-ficant differences among the. 3 groups concerning the mean ages and the blood pressure. Regarding the incidence of low PRA hypertension at different ages there were no significant differences among the decades ander 60 years of age. On the other hand, all hypertensive patients were classified into 3 groups according to their responses of renin secretion; low responders, normal responders, and high res-ponders. There was a positive correlation between the incidences of hyporesponders of renin secretion and the age. Higher incidences of hyporesponders were obtained in older patients. The incidence of hyperresponders was higher in younger patients than in older patients. Our study revealed that the incidences of low resting PRA were similar in each decade under 60 years, and it seems unlikely that low renin hypertension is a stage in a long-term course of essential hypertension. On the contrary, the hyporesponders of renin secretion to the load are apparently related to the age. It is concluded that low PRA essential hypertension must be distinct from the hyporesponder of renin secretion.
The authors reported in 1972 a statistical study based on 501 cases of malignant melanoma. As continuous study this review was carried out on 456 cases of melanoma which were reported during six years between 1970 and 1976. These two studies showed quite similar results as follows: (1) Yearly incidence of malignant melanoma indicated a definite upward trend and the average number of patients was 71.1 per year. (2) Distribution by age showed one peak in the seventh decade. (3) Sex ratio was 1.1:1. (4) The number of cases per total population in Japan showed great increase in over fifth decades and two peaks in the 7th and Sth decades. (5) Average age of the onset of all melanoma was 51.6 years old, while, that of brain and spinal cord melanoma was 25.4 years old. In the skin melanoma with preexisting pigmented skin lesions, the median age of the onset of primary melanoma on the foot was 38.7 years old and that of originated melanoma except foot was 65.9 years old. (6) Incidence of the melanoma was high in the sole considering the number of melanocytes per unit skin area. (7) Metastasis of eye melanoma was low (23%).
The distribution F(λ) of the length λ of chords delivered by a random test, line of unit length, which intersects a sufficiently large number of ellipsoids of different sizes but of uniform shape randomly oriented and dispersed in a three-dimensional space of unit volume, is given by F(λ)=(π/2)Φ(e)λ∫∞λ/2N(r)dr. In this equation, Φ(e) is a coefficient determined by two eccentricities of the ellipsoids and N(r) is the distribution function of their major semi-axes r. In the case of spheres λ(e) is 1, but otherwise it is always smaller than 1. N(r) can be further expressed as the product of the probability distribution p(r) of r and the total number Nro of the ellipsoids in a unit volume. On account of the above equation, it is possible to extend the application of the histometrical methods of spheres with the use of chord length immediately to a group of ellipsoids of uniform shape, so far as the estimation of the parameters of p(r) is concerned. Even with a group of ellipsoids of different shapes. the same principle is valid, provided that all the subgroups of ellipsoids of different eccentricities have a common p(r). Nvo is most practically estimated from Nvo=Tv(h)/2h, in which Tv(h) is the number of tangential points made by ellipsoids with a test plane of unit surface area during its transit h in the direction perpendicular to itself.
The severity of various surgical stresses was classified quantitatively on the basis of degree of adrenocortical stimulation by ACTH-Z. Urinary 17-OHCS (total, free and individual fractions) were determined in sixteen patients who underwent various operations and were injected some doses of ACTH-Z. The following quantitative classification of surgical stress was possible. In the group of ureterolithotomy and pyelolithotomy, the severity of operative stress appeared to be equivalent to the adrenocortical stimulation caused by injection of 0.125mg to 0.25mg of ACTH-Z. The severity in the group of ureterotomia externa was nearly the same as that in the above group. In the group of nephrectomy by oblique incision, the severity of stress appeared to correspond to the stimulation by injec-tion of 0.25mg or more of ACTH-Z. The group of total nephroureterectomy with partial cystectomy showed the severity which would correspond to the degree of stimulation by injection of about 0.5mg ACTH-Z, and the group of transperi-toneal nephrectomy, by injection of 0.25mg to 0.5mg of ACTH-Z.
Chronotropic effects of 6 coronary vasodilators, carbochromen, dilazep, diltiazem, dipyridamole, nifedipine and verapamil, were compared by close-arterial administration to the isolated, blood-perfused sino-atrial node preparation of the dog. All drugs produced a dose-related decrease in sinus rate, and the order of negative chronotropic potency determined on a weight basis was as follows: nifedipine_??_verapamil>diltiazem>earbochromen_??_dilazep_??_dipyridamole. Higher doses of these drugs except dipyridamole caused atrial standstill. The order of potency causing atrial standstill determined on a weight basis was as follows: nifedipine_??_verapamil>diliiazem>dilazep>carbochromen. Dipyridamole in lower doses produced a negative chronotropic effect alone, but with higher doses a positive chronotropic effect preceded a negative one. Carbochromen in a wide range of doses produced a triphasic response consisting of initial brief positive, succeeding main negative and final gradually-developing slight positive components.
In view of increasing topical use of various chemotherapeutic agents for bladder carcinoma, an experimental study concerning the effect of triethylene thiophosphoramide (Thio-Tepa) on cell kinetics of bladder carcinoma cells was performed, working on an established cell line of human bladder carcinoma. This polyfunctional alkylating agent, which is most widely used for instillation chemotherapy of bladder carcinoma, revealed a concentration dependent cytotoxicity against the cells. DNA precursor in-corporation suggested that repair mechanism occurred following subcidal dose of this compound and faulty repair took place following cidal dose. The cell cycle was prolonged after subeidal treatment, the main effect being seen in DNA synthetic phase, and the changes in the cell cycle parameters returned to the normal within 2 cell cycle time. Repeated treatment with subcidal dose at an interval of 48 hr led to more extensive changes in the cell cycle as compared with that of single dose. Repeated exposures to subcidal dose, however, did not show any differences in the growth curves from those of the controls.
A comparison was made of 14C-leucine incorporation and cell viability of T24 human bladder carcinoma cells after treatment with Thio-Tepa, a potent alkylating agent. It was found that Thio-Tepa produced concentration-dependent damage in these cells and also that 14C-leucine incorporation cor-related well with cell viability. 114C-leucine incorporation can be used as a reliable and rapid screening test for the assessment of the relative potencies of anticancer drugs.