The motor functions of the Fallopian tube classified into types of muscular movements and their correlation to the estrual periods and kinds of sex hormones was studied, as follows: 1. The movements of the tube were itemized into the peristaltic, the conductive segmented, the non-conductive segmented, the pendular, the bending and the torsional movements. 2. Both the circular and the longitudinal tubal muscles showed larger contractility under electric stimulation when estrogen was in predominance than when progesterone was in predominance, but the automatic contraction was smaller in the former state than in the latter. 3. The frequency of the contractions and the pace-maker activity were higher when estrogen was in predominance than when progesterone was in ascendancy. 4. The fatigability of the muscles was lower under predominance of estrogen than under predominance of progesterone. 5. The function of transporting ova lowered in gestation and puerperium, but showed little variation in any other stage.
The effects of audio-rectangular pulse wave current (ARC) and 50 cycle alternating current on the Fallopian tube of rabbits were studied and the following results were obtained: 1. The longitudinal and the circular salpingian muscles showed different responses to ARC, the optimum frequency being 50-900 c/sec. for the former and 30-100 c/sec. for the latter. 2. The correlation of the frequency, the voltage and the duration of pulses and the duration of applied stimulation with ARC to the intensity of muscular contraction was studied also. 3. ARC showed selective effect on different types of the muscular movements. 4. ARC was found to have spasmolytic and activating effects when applied to the salpingian muscles.
1. Increasing the carotid sinus pressure enhances shivering, while decreasing inhibits it. 2. In general, the rising of blood pressure causes an augmentation of shivering as the result of the reflex action from the carotid sinus and aortic arc. Shivering does not set in below the general blood pressure about 70mm Hg. 3. With vagal nerves intact, shivering is inhibited by adrenalin injection, while after cutting vagal nerves the injection of adrenalin accelerates shivering. 4. It may be assumed that both the excitatory and the inhibitory afferent fibers on shivering exist in the vagal nerve. 5. The intensity of shivering changes synchronously with respiration in most cases, seemingly due to the respiratory fluctuation of blood pressure.
1) When rabbits are fixed on animal board, their body temperature falls to a fixed level and shivering sets in. The fall of body temperature traces a fixed course and the critical body temperature for shivering shows little variation whenever the animals are non-anesthetized and in good condition. 2) When anesthetized rabbits are fixed, the fall of body temperature increases and the critical body temperature for shivering becomes lower in proportion to the amount of narcotics, Room temperature ranging from 5°C to 20°C did not have any marked effect on these phenomena in both anesthetized and non-anesthetized rabbits. 3) At onset of shivering, the following correlation formula consists between the blood pressure and the body temperature; (P-a)ΔBT=b Both “a” and “b” are constants, “P” representing the value of blood pressure, “ΔBT” expressing the value of falling degree below the normal body temperature.
It was reported recently that diameters of oral squamous epithelial cells were influenced by deficiency of vitamin B12 or of folic acid. The existence of deficiency in vitamin B12 or/and folio acid was highly probable among the children with nutritional dystrophy in. Hirosaki area. In 36 cases with nutritional dystrophy, the nuclear diameters of squamous epithelial cells were measured microscopically by using mouth washings, and their correlation to blood vitamin B12 levels, estimated nlicrohiologically, was examined. At the same time superposition of folic acid deficiency was checked by testing formiminoglutamic acid in urine. The correlation coefficients between blood vitamin B12 and the nuclear diameter of squamous epithelial cells were -0.72 in the cases without folio acid deficiency and -0.42 in those with it. Even though these two figures showed a not very significant difference, it may be said that the nuclear diameter of oral epithelial cells from nutritional dystrophy more closely correlated to blood vitamin B12 levels in the cases without folio acid deficiency than in those with it. In other words, folic acid deficiency, as was reported, also gave an influence on the nuclear diameter of epithelial cells, so a superposition of folio acid deficiency lessened the correlation coefficient between blood vitamin B12 levels and the nuclear diameters in our results.
Three cases of primary varicella pneumonia were reported. Clinical features and laboratory findings of these three cases revealed that pneumonias of these three cases were all caused by varicella virus itself. This is the very first report of primary varicella pneumonia in Japan.
A case of hypergammmaglobulinemia associated with tuberculous peritonitis was presented. The electrophoretic patterms of serum protein and ascitic fluid of the patient were similar and presented abnormal high levels of gam maglobuiin. It was thought more natural to attribute the hypergammaglo-bulinemia to tuberculous infection than to premyeloma or such conditions.
Slow potentials to microillumination (250×250 μ) were recorded at the same time with KCl-filled microelectrodes from the surface of the receptor layer and the inner plexiform layer of an inverted retina preparation of a toad. The surface response (response R) consisted of a slow positive- negative deflection, while the deep one (response D) consisted of an initial sharp negative and a second slower negative deflection. 1. The response D was more localized than the response R. 2. Both responses showed phase shifts during intermittent stimulation. Critical fusion frequencies were almost identical for both sorts of responses. 3. They varied independently as the intensity of illumination and the adaptation level were altered. 4. 10% CO2 abolished first the response R and then the response D.
The behavior of the recruiting response during hypothermia was investigated, and the following results were obtained. 1. Recruiting response was recorded from the frontal area by stimulation of the nucleus ventralis anterior or the anterior pole of the reticular nucleus in rat. The brain temperature was lowered gradually till 18°C. and then raised slowly to normal temperature. All the changes to be stated below were reversible. 2. Spontaneous background EEG was decreased in amplitude, and slowed in rate as the brain temperature was lowered, and flattened at 18°C. Dominant spindle bursts of high amplitude and low frequency appeared between 29°C.-25°C. 3. The optimal frequency of stimulation was determined for each temperature. There was linear relationship between the logarithm of the optimal frequency and the brain temperature in a range from 36°C. to 18°C. 4. A value of temperature characteristic (μ) 7500 cal. was obtained from the law of Arrhenius applied to the data. 5. Large and small responses appeared alternately when the frequency of stimulation was somewhat higher than the optimal one, and only small ones appeared when the frequency was much higher. The mechanism of alternation was discussed. I wish to thank Prof. K. Motokawa for his invaluable discussion and suggestion throughout the course of the experiment and the preparation of the manuscript.
1) After administration of large quantities of fat and vitamin A to rats in the last stage of gestation, transition of these substances to the fetal side of the placenta was observed. 2) Fat does not pass through the placenta after its decomposition by lipase but in the original form of fat in fine granules. 3) Vitamin A is kept in reserve in the placenta and apparently also in the yolk sac. 4) The Langhans cells in the chorionic epithelium does not play a part in the transition of fat and vitamin A through the placenta. These substances pass through the interspaces between these cells. 5) Both fat and vitamin A whether administered to the maternal or the fetal side, were found detained in the basal layer. 6) Only small quantities of fat and vitamin A pass over into the chorionic stroma and a transport route via the extra-vascular aqueducts could not be established. 7) No intraplacental transformation of carotene into vitamin A could be observed.
The role of noradrenaline in essential hypertension was studied and the following results were obtained. (1) Hypertensive subjects except the patient with pheochronnocytoma were found more sensitive to the infusion of noradrenaline than normotensives. But in the cases with pheochromocytoma the sensitivity was weaker than in normotensives. (2) There was no relation between the blood pressure and its response to Regitine. (3) A negative correlation was observed between blood pressure and urinary excretion of noradrenaline. From these experiments it may be concluded that hypertension (except in the case of pheochromocytoma) does not result from the excess of noradrenaline. Rather, in hypertensive subjects, it seems to be likely that the secretion of noradrenaline is reflexly decreased in order to adapt to their hypertensive state. On the other hand, the sensitivity to noradrenaline is obviously excessive in hypertensives. But the cause and the role of this hypersensitivity are entirely unknown to date. These problems await future study.