We estimated daily mercury intakes from seafood in 154 mothers residing in several cities and towns in Akita, Japan, to address the relationships between the reference dose (RfD of 0.1 μg-/kg body weight per day, derived by US EPA) and daily mercury intakes, combined with hair mercury levels. The frequency and volume of seafood ingested by them were examined using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 25 kinds of full-scale pictures including fish and shellfish items. Hair mercury concentrations in the mothers were also determined. The geometric means in the mothers were 15.3 (2.65-48.4) μg-/day for daily mercury intakes from seafood, calculated on the basis of the references on mercury contents, and 1.73 (0.49-5.82) μg-/g for hair mercury concentrations. The daily mercury intake was significantly correlated with hair mercury concentrations (Spearman rank correlation coefficient rs=0.335, p<0.001). No significant differences in mercury intakes were found either between mothers residing in fishing and non-fishing areas or between those in cities and towns (p>0.05). Assuming the methylmercury content rate of 75% in seafood mercury and body weight of 55 kg, the mothers were estimated to ingest methylmercury of 0.21 μg-/kg body weight per day. It is suggested that daily mercury intakes, calculated by the FFQ, reflect hair mercury levels, and there is no interregional difference in the daily mercury intake unless any special circumstance exists. Daily methylmercury intake in more than 90% of Japanese women may exceed the RfD, and it therefore seems to be far from the present state of Japanese dietary lives.
To determine the risk of developing symptoms due to the presence of maxillary and mandibular third molars, we analyzed a reliable population sample by age, and according to third-molar position and impaction level using long-term follow-up data under conditions of good oral hygiene. Of 308 graduates from our dental school, a total of 776 third molars were followed up for periods of 11 to 27 years by means of intraoral radiographs. The development of symptoms, the participant’s age, and third-molar angular position and degree of impaction were investigated. For both maxillary and mandibular third molars, the risk of developing a symptom correlated neither with angular position nor with impaction level. The first symptom associated with a third molar developed most frequently in their 20’s for both maxilla (16.2%) and mandible (17.5%), with the next highest frequency being in their 30’s (12.6%, maxilla; 13.0%, mandible). The status of third molars shows no relation to the subsequent development of symptoms if good oral hygiene is maintained. The low rates of symptom-development do not support removal of asymptomatic third molars.
Our previous study reported that the change in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-6 to IL-10 influences the severity of sepsis in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We evaluated the change in the ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 after administration of ketamine or propofol in endotoxin-exposed rats in order to evaluate the relationship of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines following ketamine or propofol administration during endotoxemia. We randomly assigned 40 rats to one of four equal groups: endotoxin alone, receiving Escherichia coli endotoxin (15 mg-/kg, i.v.); saline control; ketamine (10 mg·kg−1·h−1, i.v.) before and during exposure to endotoxin; and propofol (10 mg·kg−1·h−1, i.v.) before and during exposure to endotoxin. We measured the plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, and IL-10 and calculated the ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 in each group. The current study showed that ketamine and propofol administration attenuated the increase in TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10, and ketamine attenuated the increase in the ratio of IL-6 to IL-10, but propofol increased this ratio in rats receiving a single intravenous bolus of endotoxin. While the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects require further investigation, our results suggest that proper use of ketamine as an anesthetic agent may offer certain advantages in the management of patients with endotoxemia.
Retroperitoneal schwannoma is a rare tumor that originates in the neural sheath and accounts for only a small percentage of retroperitoneal tumors. Presentation is typically varied and non-specific ranging from abdominal pain, abdominal mass or an incidental finding and the diagnosis is quite often fortuitous being confirmed by anatomopathological study afterwards. We report 3 cases of benign retroperitoneal pelvic schwannoma with varied presentations. Main symptoms were abdominal and pelvic pain whereas a patient with left parailiac mass had urinary incontinence and left lower extremity pain. Surgical exploration and complete excision of tumors were successful. The histological diagnosis of the tumors was reported as benign schwannoma. All patients are doing well and had no symptoms of motor or sensory disturbances after surgery with a mean follow up of 18 mounts.
The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the most frequently injured retroperitoneal vascular structure. Despite the improvements in preoperative care and operation techniques, mortality rates for inferior vena cava injuries are still high due to delayed or inadequate volume recussitation, difficulty of diagnosis and technical problems in repair. A 1.5-cm sized wound at the IVC was primarly repaired by suturing. Because of appropriate and successful perioperative blood and fluid resuscitation, the patient was able to survive. We report a case of successfully treated IVC injury caused by a gunshot.
Primary clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma (CCMC) is extremely rare. During the past twenty years, only one CCMC case has been reported. Here, a case of CCMC is reported. A 30-year-old woman became aware of an abnormal mass on the left breast, and quadrantectomy was performed. Microscopically, it consisted of tumor cells that had clear cytoplasm and showed an invasive growth pattern. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for α-smooth muscle actin, S-100, partly positive for vimentin and epithelial membranous antigen. From these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as CCMC. Most of the clear cell myoepithelial tumors are probably misclassified in other examples. It is expected that the numbers of CCMC may be increased by routinely performing special stains and immunohistochemical stains, even without ultrastructual study.