FUNAKOSHI, A., MIYASAKA, K., SHINOZAKI, H., KITANI, K., SUGIYAMA, N. and YAJIMA, H. Effects of Human Pancreatic Polypeptide on Exocrine PancreaticFunction in Conscious Rats. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 1-9 - The effect of newly synthesized human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) on pancreatic secretion stimulated by a diversion of bile-pancreatic juice (BPJ) from the intestine, and plasma hPP concentration were examined in conscious rats. Exogenous hPP infusion (1, 10μg/kg/hr) inhibited pancreatic protein, bicarbonate and fluid outputs during BPJ diversion in a dose-dependent manner. During 1 and 10μg/ kg/hr hPP infusion plasma hPP immunoreactivity increased to 369±22.9 and 1, 125±90.2pg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that newly synthesized hPP has an inhibitory activity on exocrine function of the pancreas.
TANNO, N., KOIZUMI, M. and GOTO, Y. The Relationship between Cholelithiasisand Diabetes Mellitus: Discussion of Age, Obesity, Hyperlipidemia andNeuropathy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 11-20 - We investigated the patients who underwent operation for cholelithiasis and the diabetic patients at our clinic in order to determine whether there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of cholesterol gallbladder stone and age, obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and neuropathy. In 647 patients undergoing surgery, cholesterol gallstones were not highly associated with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia, compared with calcium bilirubinate and black stones. Eighty-seven percent of the male operated patients and 88% of the female patients were over 40 years old of age. Of the female patients in whom gallstones were detected at surgery, 36% were obese. We found cholesterol gallbladder stone in 11.5% (males 11%, females 12%) of 208 diabetic patients at our clinic. All of them were over 40 years old. The prevalence of cholesterol gallbladder stones was related to the decrease in motor nerve conduction velocity in the male diabetic patients (p< 0.05). We observed that method of treatment had no definite effect on the prevalence of gallbladder stones. Fifty-four percent of the diabetic patients was normolipidemic in both sexes. Obesity was present in 64% of the female cholesterol gallbladder stone patients. Our data suggest that age, obesity and poor contraction of the gallbladder could be high risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation.
SASANO, H. and SASANO, N. Extraadrenal Immunohistochemical Distributionof Steroid 21-Hydroxylase in Human. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 21-28 - Using an antibody against cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid 21- hydroxylase (P-450C21), extraadrenal distribution and localization of the enzyme were immunohistochemically examined on various normal human tissues. Immunoreactive P-450C21 was demonstrated in the renal tubular system, especially in distal tubules and cortical and medullary collecting tubules; excretory ducts including intercalated ducts of the pancreas and salivary glands; secretory ducts of the mammary glands. The immunoreactivity for P-450C21 was not present in the colon and liver. Transepithelial transport of sodium, potassium and hydrogen ions occurs in those sites where P-450C21 is present and mineralocorticoid receptors are presumed to be present. Relationship of extraadrenal 21-hydroxylase, which produces deoxycorticosterone locally, to a mineralocorticoid action is proposed.
ITO, M., SATO, T., SAITO, T., KOKUBUN, M., INOUE, M., SAITO, K., and YOSHINAGA, K. Intravenous Insulin Infusion System to Determine InsulinRegimen in Diabetics. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 29-36 - An algorithm for insulin infusion system to control blood glucose was derived from results of intravenous (i.v.) insulin infusion performed on 10 diabetics. I.v. insulin infusion was done on 14 diabetics for 24hr using the algorithm, and blood glucose was controlled within the proper range in all cases; mean blood glucose was 130± 42mg/100ml. During the examination, 4 of 14 cases did not need insulin infusion from midnight to the morning (type A) and 7 cases needed insulin infusion from midnight to the morning (type B). In 3 cases, insulin infusion was not needed at midnight, but blood glucose rose markedly in the early morning followed by insulin infusion (type C). The insulin regimen was determined according to the amount of insulin infused during the examination, dividing insulin dosages into two separate doses using semilente in the morning and a mixture of regular and lente insulin in the evening. In all the cases of type A and B, blood glucose was controlled well on the calculated regimen of insulin. However, good control of blood glucose was not obtained in 3 diabetics of type C. It is concluded that the algorithm is reliable in the estimation of the insulin infusion rate to control blood glucose in the diabetics, and the insulin regimen calculated from the result of intravenous insulin infusion is proper in about 78% of the diabetics.
TAKEDA, K., MIZUSAWA, I., KURODA, Y. and HIRAIWA, K. Evaluation ofMonoclonal Antibody against Human Pulmonary Surfactant Apoprotein. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 37-46 - Lung sections of 104 newborn infants stored for 20 to 25 years and of seven cases of paraquat (PQ) intoxication were examined to detect the pulmonary surfactant apoprotein with the monoclonal antibody PE10 by immunoperoxidase staining technique. Specific peroxidase staining was observed in alveolar Type II cells and on alveolar galls of normal adult lungs. In the lungs of liveborn infant up to 28 weeks' gestation, peroxidase staining was negative. However, faint positive staining was observed in a specimen of 29 weeks' gestation, and the rate of positive staining increased with gestational age. Fifteen cases of newborn lungs with hyaline membranes revealed no positive staining except one. In the lungs of stillborn infants, peroxidase staining was weak and the rate of negative staining was more than that of liveborn infants. The specimens of PQ intoxication up to 5 days survival showed positive staining on alveolar walls, while those of 10 days or more survival, in which fibrotic changes and hyaline membranes were developed, showed no positive staining.
HOSHI, K., YANAGIDA, K., AITA, T., YOSHIMATSU, N. and SATO, A. Changesin the Motility Pattern of Human Spermatozoa during In Vitro Incubation. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 47-56 - Suspensions of capacitating human spermatozoa were analyzed for movement characteristics using high-speed videomicrography. The status of the acrosome reaction was also assessed by the zona-free hamster ova penetration test. (1) Movement charracteristics of human spermatozoa were classified into 4 types (A, B, C, D). Type A: The movement was active, but its progressive orientation was irregular. Type B: The spermatozoa moved with a wide amplitude of the end of tail. Type C: The amplitude of the tail decreased, and the linear velocity of progression increased. Type D: The whole part of tail showed wavelike rhythmical movements, and the velocity more increased. (2) Movement characteristics of human spermatozoa in vitro gradually changed from Type A to B, C and D. As the spermatozoa classified Type D moved very powerfully and this motility pattern was obviously different from the other types, it was considered hyperactivation of human spermatozoa. The Type D was found from 2 or 3hr of incubation, and after 3 or 4hr most of the spermatozoa showed Type D. (3) The motility pattern of human spermatozoa changed to the Type D before the spermatozoa penetrate into zona-free hamster oocytes. It suggested that the hyperactivation occurred before the acrosome reaction takes place.
SUGITA, Y. and TASAKI, K. Rods Also Participate in Human Color Vision. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 57-62 - In the retinal periphery, rod and cone thresholds to the same green light were measured. After the rod-cone break in the course of dark adaptation, cone sensitivity decreases gradually as rod sensitivity progressively increases. Cone sensitivity, however, increases when rod sensitivity is decreased by blue light. The emergence of the facilitatory effect of rod activation requires at least a few hundred msec after rod stimulation. It is concluded that rod activation plays a major role in sensitivity regulation of the cone system, i.e., in human color vision.
OKAMOTO, T., OIKAWA, S., TOYOTA, T. and GOTO, Y. Angiogenesis Factors inOcular Tissues of Normal Rabbits on Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 63-70 - Recent studies have shown that angiogenesis-stimulatory factors exist in ocular tissues and play a crucial role in the development of some eye disorders such as diabetic retinopathy. However, there are few reports that studied location of angiogenesis factors in ocular tissues of experimental animals. We studied angiogenesis factors in ocular tissues of normal rabbits by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Extracts derived from the retina, iris-ciliary body and optic nerve showed an evident activity of angiogenesis. Retinal extracts at 10μg showed a strong angiogenic activity in 50% of CAMs (p<0.01). On the other hand, bovine serum albumin which is heterogeneous protein showed only a slight angiogenic activity at a high concentration (1, 000μg). The iris-ciliary body and optic nerve showed also an angiogenic activity as did the retina. Extracts from the heart, liver and serum showed no activity of angiogenesis. Thus, angiogenic activity was strongly present in the ocular tissues, especially in retina of the normal rabbits.
KOBAYASHI, M. The Irradiation Effects on the Cytoskeletons of C3H/HeMouse Mammary Tumor Cells and Vascular Basement Membrane in Relation toVascular Invasion: A Model of Intraoperative Radiotherapy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 71-89 - We investigated the short-term effects of a single high-dose radiation upon transplanted MM46 tumor cells in mice by means of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The irradiation induced: 1) giant cell formation from the 3rd day, 2) arrest of tumor cell mitosis in prophase and metaphase due to the disorganization of the mitotic spindles, 3) changes in immunoreactivity of laminin and cytoskeletons, and 4) multilayering of the vascular basal lamina and perivascular fibrosis. The above findings suggest a decrease in tumor cell compliance, growth and invasiveness and the potentiation of defensive host responses against vascular invasion after irradiation. The analysis of the temporal sequences of the events indicates that the time lapse between the optimal host response, tumor growth and invasion constitutes a critical period.
MIKI, H., HIDA, W., INOUE, H. and TAKISHIMA, T. A New Treatment forObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome by Electrical Stimulation of Submental Region. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 91-92 - Loss of upper airway muscle tone during sleep has been thought to be responsible for obstructive apnea episodes. To examine the effect of electrical stimulation of the submental region on sleep apnea episodes, patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were polysomnographically studied during all-night session with and without stimulation.
SHIMIZU, K., OGAWA, K.B., KATO, T., LEE, J-D., HARA, A. and NAKAMURA, T. Complete Prevention of Acetylcholine Induced Coronary Artery Spasm withNifedipine. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1988, 154 (1), 93-94 - A 63-year-old woman has been known to have angina pectoris due to coronary artery (CA) spasm. An intra-left CA infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) provoked spasms of the left CA and an anginal attack. After daily oral administration of nifedipine (NIF) for 2 weeks, intra-CA re-infusion study of ACh did not provoke any CA spasms. This is the first report to demonstrate the complete prevention of ACh-induced CA spasm with nifedipine