HIGASHI, A., MATSUDA, I., MASUMOTO, T., SAIKUSA, H., YABUSO, M. and OKA, Y. Serum Zinc and Copper Concentrations in Low Birth Weight Infants duringFirst Three Months of Life: Correlation to Birth Weight and Different Feedings. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 253-263-Serum zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were measured in infants weighing 740g to 2, 500g at birth. They were divided into three groups depending on their birth weight; Group I ranged from 740 to 1, 500g (N=35), Group II from 1, 501 to 2, 000g (N=26), and Group III from 2, 001 to 2, 500g (N=19). They were fed breast milk (N=24), commercially available non-supplemented formula with low Zn and low Cu content (N=42), or Zn- and Cu-supplemented formula (N=14). Serum Zn levels of breast fed infants were apparently higher than those of the other two different formula fed infants, the difference being significant at 1 month of age in Group I. After the decline of serum Zn level during the first month of life, the level in Groups II and III remained unchanged, whereas the level in Group I further declined progressively until 3 months of age. An incidence of hypozincemia (0.65μg/ml) was highest in Group I, medium in Group II, and lowest in Group III. The serum Cu level was elevated progressively after birth in all groups, but the mean level was consistently highest in Group III, medium in Group II and lowest in Group I. No difference in serum Cu level was found among the infants with different feedings.
MORITA, T., SUZUKI, T., RONDO, S., SAEKI, H., NISHIMOTO, T. and TSUCHIDA, S. Relationship between Pelviureteral Peristaltic Frequency and Urine FlowChange Evoked by Autonomic Drug Administration. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1984, 146 (3), 265-271-Parallel recording of renal pelvic pressure, ureteral electromyogram and urine volume was carried out in dogs given intravenous injections of noradrenaline, isoproterenol or acetylcholine. With noradrenaline, an increase in urine volume was observed coincidentally with an elevation of renal pelvic pressure and an increase in frequency of ureteral peristalsis. In response to isoproterenol, the urine volume diminished in harmony with flattening of pelvic pressure waves and the disappearance of ureteral peristalsis. Conversely, ureteral peristalsis increased in frequency immediately after the administration of acetylcholine, while the urine volume diminished.
SAEKI, H., MORITA, T., NISHIMOTO, T., KONDO, S. and TSUCHIDA, S. Changesin the Ureteral Peristaltic Rate and the Bolus Volume in Gradual and RapidUrinary Flow Increase. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 273-275-The electromyogram and bolus volume of ureteral peristalsis were measured during gradual and rapid urinary flow increase, using 16 mongrel dogs. When the urine flow was increased rapidly by administration of diuretics, the ureteral peristaltic rate always increased first, then the urine bolus volume increased and finally the ureter became a urinary column without forming the urine bolus. When the urine flow was increased gradually by intravenous drip infusion of saline solution, the ureteral peristaltic rate and urine bolus volume did not always increase in spite of urinary flow increase. The peristaltic rate and bolus volume helped each other for effective urinary transport, as both of them not only always increase but also one of them occasionally decreased.
MIZUTANI, N., MIYAZU, M., MAEHARA, M., ISOMURA, S., WATANABE, K. and IMANISHI, J. Treatment of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis with HumanLeukocyte Interferon. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 277-284-In five patients with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), human leukocyte interferon (IFN) therapy was tried. IFN was administered intramuscularly, intravenously, and intrathecally. The total dose of administered IFN ranged from 13×106 to 116.92×106 IU. There were no severe side effects except for temporary high fever and vomiting. Observation of the clinical course were made for 26-60 months. At the beginning of the treatment, one of the patients was at the first stage of Jabbour's classification and the other four at the second stage. No clinical improvement was observed and the clinical course was progressive in all patients. At present, one of the patients was at the second stage and the other four were at the fourth stage. EEGs showed progressive deterioration, and cranial CT scan demonstrated progressive cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement. Measles antibody titers in the serum and CSF also unchanged. On the other hand, permeability of IFN at blood-brain barrier (BBB) was relatively good.
UCHIDA, M., KONDOH, K., SAITOH, M. and WATANABE, H. Electric DrillNephroscope for Percutaneous Nephroureterolithotomy. Tohoku J. exp, Med., 1985, 146 (3), 285-288-An original electric drill nephroscope was developed for percutaneous nephroureterolithotomy (PNL). In 8 cases large pelvic calculi over 1cm in diameter were successfully disintegrated and removed.
NOMURA, T., SAKURADA, T. YOSHIDA K., YONEMITSU, K., ITAGAKI, Y., SUZUKI, M., FUKAZAWA, H., KAISE, N., KAISE, K., YAMAMOTO, M., SAITO, S. and YOSHINAGA, K. Determination of Free Triiodothyronine in Serum: Comparisonof Radioimmunoassay with Equilibrium Dialysis Method. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 289-301-In normal volunteers, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations determined by Immophase FT3 RIA kit, Amerlex FT3 RIA kit and equilibrium dialysis methods (absolute FT3, AFT3: product of total T3 and percent FT3) were 4.03±0.65, 3.69±0.58 and 3.22±0.65pg/ml (mean±S.D.), respectively. The normal free triiodothyronine index (FT3I) was 38.4±6.5. In patients with hyper-and hypothyroidism, the FT3 values measured by these methods were clearly abnormal. In patients with decreased thyroxine binding-globulin, the mean FT3 concentrations determined by these methods were not significantly different from the normal. However, the mean FT3I was significantly lower than normal. In pregnant women at delivery, Amerlex FT3 values were subnormal in 7 of 9 subjects. All of these samples except one were within the normal range when evaluated by Immophase FT3 and AFT3, although their mean values were significantly lower than the mean of normal. On the other hand, the mean FT3I was not significantly different from the mean of normal. The correlations between FT3 values estimated by different methods and between FT3 values and FT3I were all statistically significant. In a clinically euthyroid patient who had chronic thyroiditis and who was shown to have anti-T3 antibody in her serum, Immophase FT3 and Amerlex FT3 values were above the high standards. However, AFT3, calculated by multiplying total T3 (determined after ethanol extraction) by percent FT3 was normal. In conclusion, the evaluation of FT3 by these radioimmunoassay methods proved clinically useful, when appropriate limitations are considered.
KOSAKAI, M., ISEMURA, M., MUNAKATA, H. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Alteration inGlycosidases from Well-Differentiated Colorectal Adenocarcinoma of Rat. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 303-311-The activities of six glycosidases in a rat colorectal adenocarcinoma were measured and compared with those of normal colonic mucosa. The specific activities of β-galactosidase (EC 220.127.116.11) and β-glucuronidase (EC 18.104.22.168) in the adenocarcinoma were similar to those of the corresponding ones in the normal mucosa, whereas those of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EC 22.214.171.124), α-L-fucosidase (EC 126.96.36.199), α-galactosidase (EC 188.8.131.52) and β-glucosidase (EC 184.108.40.206) were reduced in the former as compared with those in the latter. In the case of α-L-fucosidase, two forms were newly detected in the tumor. The relative abundance of three forms of β-N-acetylglucosaminidase was quite different between the adenocarcinoma and the normal mucosa, and the level of the intermediate form in the tumor was markedly reduced. However, thermostability and Km values of two forms A and B in the tumor were not different from those of the corresponding ones in the normal tissue.
AKIBA, T., YOSHIKAWA, M., KINODA, M., OTAKI, S., ISHII, K., KOBAYASHI, Y. and SATO, T. Angiocardiographic Estimation of Left and Right VentricularVolume Characteristics in Normal Infants and Children. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 313-320-Left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume data were obtained from biplane cineangiocardiograms in 31 patients with Kawasaki disease who showed normal coronary arteries in selective coronary arteriograms. LV and RV volumes were calculated by using Simpson's rule method. Both of end-diastolic (EDV) and stroke volume (SV) were excellently expressed as a function of body surface area (BSA) with exponential relationship: LVEDV=104.3 (BSA)1.61 ml (r=0.93, p<0.001), RVEDV=109.7 (BSA)1.68 ml (r=0.90, p< 0.001), LVSV=68.1 (BSA)1.60 ml (r=0.89, p<0.001) and RVSV=66.8 (BSA)1.76 ml (r=0.86, p<0.001). LV ejection fraction (LVEF) averaged 66±1% (mean± S.E.), and RVEF 58±1%. Both of them showed no significant correlations with BSA. The normal values of EDV and SV in infants and children can be predicted from their BSA by using the exponential equations demonstrated by the present study. Thus, these values in pediatric patients with heart diseases could be evaluated in terms of percentage of normal.
MURAKAMI, T., WAKAMATSU, E., TAMAHASHI, N. and TAKAHASHI, T. The Functional Significance of Human Notochord in the Development of VertebralColumn. An Electron Microscopic Study. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 321-336-Twenty-one human embryos or fetuses from four to twenty-one weeks in gestation age were submitted to light and electron microscopic observations of the notochord and its related structures. The notochord cells were found to have densely developed rER and Golgi areas, which were correlated with an activity to secrete into their surroundings specific ground substance probably containing proteoglycan. The highest differentiation of this cell as estimated by the peak secretory activity was reached at about ten weeks, while signs of degeneration emerged shortly thereafter and became increasingly apparent with the advancing gestation. The synthesis and secretion of matrices were likely to be taken over by the fibrocartilage cells surrounding the notochord by about 20 weeks when the notochord cells had undergone severe degenerative changes. Another characteristic feature of the notochord cells at their fully differentiated stage was abundance in intracytoplasmic glycogen that coexisted with striking paucity of mitochondria. This was interpreted as suggesting the metabolic dependence of these cells upon anaerobic glycolysis even at the peak of their secretory performance.
FUKUDA, K., SEINO, J., KINOSHITA, Y., SUDO, K., HORIGOME, I., FURUYAMA, T. and YOSHINAGA, K. Modified Anti-C3 Immune Complex Assay Which Avoidsthe Interference by Anti-F(ab')2 Antibodies. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3) 337-347-The present authors and Olds et al. reported that the anti-F(ab')2 antibodies (Abs) in serum interfere with the solid phase (SP) anti-C3 immune complex assay. The anti-F(ab')2 Abs in human sera bind solid phase F(ab')2 anti-C3 of rabbit or goat, and were measured errouneously as C3 bearing circulating immune complexes (CIC). Gel filtration analysis of SP anti-C3 assay revealed that C3 bearing CIC is detected only in heavy fractions and 75 CIC-like activity is not CIC but anti-F(ab')2 activity. As the molecular weight of such CIC is heavy enough to be precipitated by 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) and IgG anti-F(ab')2 Abs and free C3 are not included in 5% PEG precipitates, 5% PEG precipitates of the test sera were used for SP anti-C3 (Modified SP anti-C3). CIC measured by modified SP anti-C3 were positive in 14/16 at active stage of SLE and positive only in 2/16 at inactive stage. CIC by this test were also correlated well to serum complement activity, and were thought to be clinically reliable and useful.
SATO, A., LIOU, S., YAMAGUCHI, Y., SATO, M. and SUZKI, M. Estimation ofFetal Weight by Ultrasonic Measurement of Several Fetal Growth Parameters. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 349-361-Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and head, chest and abdominal circumferences (HC, CC, AC) were measured by means of real-time B-scan echography. The study population consisted of 198 patients who were hospitalized at Tohoku University Hospital. All live-born infants were delivered within 48hr after ultrasonic examination. This study was intended to establish criteria for diagnosis of fetuses weighing more than 2, 500g by means of a single ultrasonic measurement of several different fetal growth parameters. When estimated diameter of BPD exceeded 9.0cm, 96.1% of the infants weighed more than 2, 500g. In all cases in which HC, CC and AC exceeded 30cm, the infants weighed more than 2, 500g. Finally, a multiple regression equation was constructed for estimation of birth weight by the values of fetal BPD, HC, CC and AC. The prediction error between prospective birth weight given by this formula and actual birth weight was±200g. The present method for estimation of fetal weight is simple and useful in obstetrical clinic.
CHIBA, S. and TSUJI, T. Vascular Responsiveness of Isolated, PerfusedBasilar Arteries in Dogs and Monkeys. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 363-370-A new model of isolated basilar arterial preparation was developed in the dog and monkey. Isolated arteries were perfused at a constant flow rate with Krebs solution and suspended in a bath at 37°C. By inserting the steel cannula into the artery, the space between the luminal wall of the artery and the cannula was narrowed enough to obtain a suitable perfusion pressure during the perfusion. The resting perfusion pressure was maintained at a constant level of 50-100mmHg.The drug solution was intraluminally administered, and the response was obtained as changes in the perfusion pressure. Responses to 6 vasoactive substances (norepinephrine, 5-HT, PGF2α, histamine, ATP and KCl) were compared between simian and canine basilar arteries. It was demonstrated that in simian arteries, PGF2α was the strongest but 5-HT and norepinephrine induced slight vasoconstriction to the same degree, and in canine basilar arteries, 5-HT induced the strongest constriction but norepinephrine did not produce significant vasoconstriction, and KCl induced marked constriction to the same degree at extremely large doses in both species. It was demonstrated that the cannula inserting method is useful to observe the responses of isolated basilar arteries.
KONDO, S., SAEKI, H., MORITA, T., TSUCHIDA, S., SHIMA, H. and TASHIMA, Y. Effects of Dobutamine on Cyclic AMP Content in Canine Upper Urinary TractTissue. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 371-372-There was no regional difference in tissue cAMP content throughout the upper urinary tract specimens obtained from dogs immobilized by pancuronium bromide (0.1mg/kg, i.v.). The cAMP content was increased in all regions examined 5min after administration of dobutamine (1mg/kg, i.v.) and pancuronium bromide. The increase was much higher in the pelvicalyceal region than in the other upper urinary tract tissue. The responsiveness of the pelvicalyceal region where pacemaker cells for ureteral peristalsis exist is considered to be higher than that in the other upper urinary tract tissue in respect to dobutamine-induced cAMP increase.
WATANABE, M., TAKAYAMA, Y., KOIKE, M. and YAMAMOTO, M. In VivoClastogenicity of Lead Chromate in Mice. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 373-374 -Cytogenetical effects of lead chromate were evaluated in vivo. When 0.5, 1, 2 and 4g/kg body weight of lead chromate suspensions in 0.5% gum arabic were administered i.p. to C57BL/6N male mice twice, the frequencies of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the femoral bone marrow were significantly (p<0.01) different from that in the vehicle control. Moreover, as the dose increased, the ratio of the polychromatic to normochromatic erythrocytes decreased in a dose-response fashion (p<0.05). Thus, it is concluded that lead chromate in vivo gives rise to chromosomal damage as well as disturbance in hematopoiesis.
CHIBA, J., ASANUMA, Y., MATSUBARA, S., SUNAMURA, M., MATSUO, T., Miura, Y., KOYAMA, K. and SATO, T. A Case of Postoperative Liver Failure SuccessfullyTreated with Plasma Exchange. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 375-376-A 68 year old female patient suffered from postoperative hepatitis and fell in grade III coma with the total bilirubin level of 30mg/100ml and prothrombin time of 25%. Plasma exchange using hollow fiber plasma separator was performed and after 10 procedures during 1 month, the patient did fully recover.
FUNAKOSHI, N., KANOH, T., UCHINO, H. and YASUNAGA, K. T-LymphocyteSubpopulations in Hemophiliac Patients. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 146 (3), 377-378-Laboratory data are presented on 15 patients with hemophilia A. Mean OKT4/OKT8 ratio in hemophiliac patients was significantly lower than in the controls. Although no patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been found in Japan, hemophilac patients are supposed to be at increased risk of AIDS by our studies.