Cirrhotic nodules were assumed to be a mixture of ellipsoids of different sizes and eccentricities, and mathematical derivations were discussed to estimate the distribution, the mean and the standard deviation of their sizes with only a small number of random histological sections. Logarithms of the largest axes of nodules approximately formed a normal distribution. With intermediate results, the total nodule volume in an unit volume of the liver and the mean thickness of internodular septa could be estimated. None of the above estimates from 87 autopsy cases of Laonnec's cirrhosis of various types revealed discon-tinuity in its frequency distribution. Consequently, a classification of liver cirrhosis based on the difference of the above quantities was regarded to be an unsuccessful attempt. Characterization of individual cirrhotic livers with the above estimates was proposed instead of “classification”, to ensure unbiased correlations of anatomical properties to other quantities of clinical, functional and etiological implications.
Statistical data on the autopsy incidence of gallstones during 1955-61, the period which was marked by considerable improvements in life circum-stances of Japan after World War II, were collected from 48 pathologic institutes of Japan. Of a total of 35, 028 cases of this series, 1, 536 cases were reported to have had gallstones at autopsy, the over-all incidence being 4.4 per cent. Since comparable data ranged in the pre-war period from 2.8 per cent to 3.7 per cent, the increase of the incidence revealed by this study is quite smaller than was expected from remarkable improvements, in recent years, of the nutritive conditions of the Japanese people. Moreover, the autopsy incidence of gall-stones appearing in Western literatures is twice or more as high as that of the present study. In this connection, it has been demonstrated that the average fat and protein intakes of the Japanese people in these days are definitely larger than in the pre-war period but are still much smaller when compared with those of the Western people.
The isolation and quantitation of the surface-active phospholipids of the lipids extracted from mammalian saline lung extracts were studied by the direct application of thin-layer chromatography. The significant recovery of 85% of the phospholipids suggests that the method described can be used for the quantitative analysis of the surface-active material of lung extract and for further complementary analysis such as gas-liquid chromatography. The choline -containing phospholipids such as lecithin and sphingomyelin isolated from lung extracts of different species gave characteristic surface acitivity on a modified Wilhelmy balance. The phosphatidylethanolamine and its analogues did not exhibit surface activity.
Plasma renin was estimated in forty-five women; 18 non-pregnant, 11 normal pregnant, 13 toxemic pregnant and 3 postpartum. It was found that plasma renin was within normal range in all of the non-pregnant and normal pregnant groups, and two of the post partum group. In one patient of the last group a high value was obtained, though it was by far lower than that in toxemic pregnancy. Eight of the 13 patients in the toxemic group were observed to have increased plasma renin. It is evident from this study that the renin-angiotensin system is concerned in the toxemia of pregnancy. But the question as to whether the elevated renin in toxemia originates from the kidney or from the pathological placenta is not yet solved.
No significant change occurred in urinary excretion of inorganic sulfate in children after a supplement of water-soluble vitamins, whereas addition of vitamin A, together with water-soluble vitamins, resulted in a marked decrease. In contrast to inorganic sulfate the excretion of taurine was decreased remarkably by a supplement of water-soluble vitamins and it came to a still lower level by the administration of vitamin A. The decreased excretion of taurine can be possibly explained by the assumption that a stress of hypovitaminosis is imposed on the children and the stress is lightened by dosing of the vitamins.
The 3-year survival rate after stomach resection for carcinoma was 15.9 per cent (7 of 44) in the cases with positive cancer cells, at the time of operation, in the regional blood and was definitely lower as compared to 45.7 per cent (58 of 127) in the cases with no cancer cells in the blood. The tendency was true even when the cases with no or little extragastric advance of carcinoma only were studied to simplify the condition of analysis. Among 143 cases which were considered to have undergone radical operation, moreover, the cases with positive cancer cells in the blood were significantly worse in the prognosis than in the negative cases. The present investigation thus seems to indicate a significance of the presence of cancer cells in the blood as a factor which considerably affects the postoperative prognosis of stomach cancer.
Probable relationship between the intensity of the fluorescent antibody staining reaction of dermatophytes and fixing procedure of the smear was investigated. Smears of dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, T. interdigitale, T. asteroides, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum japonicum, were fixed by heating, by ethanol or by formalin, or left to be air-dried without fixation, and they were stained with either anti-T. rubrum or anti-T. interdigitale fluorescent antibody. The experiments have led to the conclusion that of the fixing techniques employed heating was the most undesirable, for the smears fixed by heating could hardly be stained with any of the conjugates and they gave the most brilliant autofluorescence.
Estimating both the blood and liver catalase activities at the same time in the same animals, we found some correlations between the change of the blood catalase activity and that of liver catalase activity in tumor- bearing animals, and then pursued clinically the interrelation between the change of the blood catalase activity and the effect of surgery on cancer patients. The average value of the blood catalase activity in 82 cancer patients was significantly low as compared with the value of non-cancerous individuals. We found that the cancer patients whose value of blood catalase activity had not risen after surgery, had recurrence of the cancer at an early time, even though curative resection had been carried out macroscopically; and in the cases with manifest improvement of the value of blood catalase activity after surgery, the clinical signs of recurrence mostly could not be seen until the declining tendency of the blood catalase activity became evident. Thus, if the cancer lesion is not too small, the successive estimation of the blood catalase activity at the time of surgery of cancer patients may assist in determining the effects of the surgery.
Both scotopie ERG and photically evoked potential were simultaneously recorded on 15 cases of optic atrophy, 19 of retinal degenerative disorders and 4 of cataracts. The evoked potentials were recored by Dawson's superimposed meth-od. In optic atrophy the ERG is normal, but the evoked potential is undetectable in cases of total blindness. In retinitis pigmentosa the ERG is undetectable in most cases and the evoked potential also tends to be affected; it either becomes unde-tectable or is decreased in amplitude, but in macular atrophy and in retinochoroidal atrophy both ERG and the evoked potential are normal or slightly affected in spite of deterioration of the visual function. The similar tendency is observed in cataract. Simultaneous recording of ERG and evoked potential is useful supplementary method for topical diagnosis of the involved visual system.