Immune ribonucleic acid (RNA) preparations were obtained from the culture filtrate of peritoneal macrophages derived from immunized animals. These agents were also extractable from the peritoneal exudates or spleen cells of immunized animals and were capable of inducing the proliferation of antibody-forming cells, when injected into either conventional or germ-free animals. When injected, these agents were able to induce ‘memory’ cells capable of responding to a secondary stimulus with an antigen and producing a high titer of serum antibody. However, secondary responses were not induced by injections of immune RNA preparations into animals primed with either corresponding antigen or immune RNA preparation. It was also demonstrated that the ability of immune RNA preparations to induce either antibody formation or memory cells was inactivated by treatment with RNase but not with proteinases such as trypsin and pronase. These results indicated that previous stimulation by an antigen was not needed for the induction of antibody formation by immune RNA and that this agent did not contain antigens or fragments thereof.
African clawed toad and rainbow trout were found different from mammals in their behavior of antibody production against Salmonella flagella. The most striking differences were: (1) absence or no reactive proliferation of pyroninophilic cells including plasma cell, (2) absence of secondary response so far tested.
The maximal gastric acid secretory test was performed to examine the influence of age upon acid production in both normal and duodenal ulcer (D. U.) patients. It appeared that in the 16-40 years age group the D. U. patients showed a more than 30mEq acid output. Though a curvilinear relationship between the output and the age was not very apparent by inspection because of the wide scatter, there was an unmistakable sharp decline in the output beyond 50 years of age.
The endocrine-like cells in the normal antro-pyloric mucosa of the human stomach were examined by the electron microscope. According to their fine structural characteristics, they were tentatively classified into the following seven types. Cell-type I has very electron dense and polymorphous secretory granules in the basal region. The narrow apical part has long microvilli. Cell-type II is triangular in shape. The granules are round and vary in diameter (300-600mμ) and in electron density. Cell-type III is triangular in form and has many round granules (130mμ in diameter) with high electron density. These granules are characterized by their uniform size and homogeneous appearance. Cell-type IV contains a prominent endoplasmic reticulum in the supranuclear region. Two kinds of granules are recognizable in the basal part: smaller ones (200mμ) which are dense, and larger ones (400mμ) which are pale and foamy. Cell-type V is in contact with the glandular lumen and contains numerous secretory granules with various densities. Cell-type VI is oval in shape and characterized by small granules (90-150mμ) with moderate density, localized in the basal region. Cell-type VII is round or spindle-shaped and has very long microvilli. In the infranuclear region there are a number of secretory granules which have some flues of low electron density and which are enclosed by a limiting membrane.
Hyperaminoacidemia was induced in 17-day-old rats by intra-peritoneal injection of a single amino acid and the free amino acid pattern in the brain was analyzed at 1 hour after the injection. A significant alternation of the free amino acid pattern in the brain was observed by the loading of phenylalanine, histidine, valine, methionine or glycine, respectively. These findings suggest that the inhibition of amino acid transport by excess of a single amino acid may result in decrease of essential amino acids and in reduced rate of brain protein synthesis.
Using the method of gastrin bioassay and its modified technique, the inactivation of gastrin-like synthetic peptide was found to exist both in the liver and serum. The experimental liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) reduced the gastrin-like peptideinactivation in the liver. These findings may indicate that the high incidence of peptic ulcer among the patients with liver diseases is due in part to hypergastrinemia caused by a disturbed inactivation of endogenous gastrin in the liver.
The autoadaptation mechanism of the human body loses its rationality and purposefulness by an imblance of the autonomic nervous system, and the host body falls into adaptational disturbances. Hosts with sympathicotonia often fall into acute adaptational disturbances in the acme to the convalescent stage by stimuli of the second-phase factors (the factors lowering mitosis of the neutropoietic system in the bone marrow), resulting sometimes in death. Infectious factors such as salmonella (typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli), rickettiae, viruses, etc., physico-chemical factors such as alkalis and alkaline substances, benzene and its derivatives, X-ray and other radio-active substances belong to the second-phase factor. On the contrary, hosts with parasympathicotonia often fall into acute adaptational disturbances in the initial stage to the acme by stimuli of the first-phase factors (the factors raising mitosis of the neutropoietic system in the bone marrow). The disturbances are prominent, particularly, in the early stage of stimulation and recognized as shock. Infectious factors such as cocci and shigella, chemical factors such as foreign proteins, acids and acid substances belong to the first-phase factor. Hosts with parasympathicotonia are resistant against the second-phase factors such as typhoid bacilli, but weak against the first-phase factors such as cocci, on the contrary, hosts with sympathicotonia show strong resistance againt the firstphase factors such as cocci, but weak against the second-phase factors such as typhoid bacilli.
Chronic adaptational disturbances were observed from the standpoint of the autonomic nervous system which constitutes the constitutional condition of the human body, and analyzed by the biological binary digit. In hosts with parasympathicotonia, long-term stimulation by the first-phase factor (the factor raising mitosis of the neutropoietic system in the bone marrow) brings about an abnormal antibody-antigen reaction and its terminal picture appears as an abnormal antibody disease (collagen disease in a broader sense). On the contrary, in hosts with sympathicotonia, long-term stimulation by the second-phase factor (the factor lowering mitosis of the neutropoietic system in the bone marrow) brings about an abnormal cell-stimulant factor reaction and its terminal picture can be recognized as an abnormal cell disease (neoplasm in a broader sense). Therefore, neoplasm and collagen disease are in antagonisitic relation in their etiology and pathogenesis.
The transmural stimulation caused relaxation of atropinized taenia strip from chimpanzee and pig. This relaxing response was not blocked by adrenergic blocking agent (bretylium) but abolished by tetrodotoxin. From this fact, it seems reasonable to assume the presence of non-adrenergic inhibitory nerve system in taeniae of the chimpanzee and pig.
The statistical dependent properties of the spontaneous impulse sequence recorded from the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in cats were clarified with the following procedures. 1) the value of each interspike interval was normalized by the mean value of the intervals. 2) the stochastic dependency of the normalized sequence was calculated. It is suggested that Markov property exists in the spontaneous impulse sequences recorded from MRF single neurons and not from LGN single neurons.