A new method of bronchography, selective alveolo-bronchography (SAB), was described and recommended for clinical use in establishing correct clinical diagnosis of emphysema. The diagnosis of emphysema was made possible on the basis of morphologic findings in SAB. Further it was possible not only to differentiate emphysema from other chronic obstructive lung diseases, but also to distinguish the two types, centrilobular or panacinar, and to evaluate the grade of emphysema. In the final clinical assessment of these diseases the findings of SAB should be of course supplemented by clinical symptoms including the results of pulmonary function tests. We think that the present method contributes much to excluding the current confusion in the terminology of chronic obstructive lung diseases and is quite helpful to chest physicians, who have been aware of the difficulty in identifying these diseases.
A histochemical and electron microscopic study of the cytological features of the fiber types in normal human intercostal muscle is presented. From observations on succinic dehydrogenase, Sudan staining, and by electron microscopy, the human striated muscle fibers can be divided into three types; red, white and intermediate fibers. On the basis of mitochondrial content and distribution, each fiber type is characterized as follows. 1) The size and the composition of mitochondrial chains among the myofibrillar spaces: large and long in the red, absent in the white and medium in the intermediate fiber. 2) The size and shape of bracelet-like mitochondria which encompass the myofibrils at each I-band tend to be plump and multiform in the red, but slender and elongated in the white and the intermediate fibers. 3) Deposits of mitochondria beneath the sarcolemma, which are numerous in the red, scarce in the white and moderate in the intermediate fiber. Attention has been further paid to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets and glycogen particles.
Splenic tissues prepared from Yoshida sarcoma(YS)-resistant rats, mice and rabbits were homogenized at 4°C with 0.25M sucrose solution; these homogenates were then separated into supernatant and sediment by ultra-centrifugation at 5, 000g at low temperature (4°C). After intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injections of these subcellular fractions, YS cells (105) were inoculated into the recipients and their survival time was examined. The survival time of the recipient was longest in the group injected with the supernatant regardless of the combination of rat-strains between donor and recipient and of the route of injection. Similarly, xenogeneic supernatant from YS immune mice and rabbits produced in the recipient a response against the tumor cells. But some o f the recipients died of a hemorrhagic diathesis or jaundice. On the other hand, allogeneic and xenogeneic sediments of homogenates of immune spleen cells showed little effect on tumor inoculation. The subcellular fractions obtained from allogeneic and xenogeneic normal animals had no antitumor effect. Similarly, antiserum from xenogeneic donors showed no antitumor effect. When the 5, 000×g supernatant from immune spleen cells was stored at -20°C for 30 days, the antitumor effect was not diminished. But when it was stored at 4°C for 10 days, the effect was apparently diminished. When increased quantities of the supernatant from immune spleen cells were given to animals, the survival rate of the recipients was also increased.
In the region from arterial trunks to pial arterioles anatomical characteristics of the cerebral artery as revealed by quantitative treatment of the arterial cast consist in the predominance of the length of large arterial branches over that of the arterioles. Theoretical analysis of blood pressure drop based on the above result demonstrates a large pressure drop in the region of large arterial branches and a relatively insignificant role of the arteriolar region in providing a resistance to cerebral blood flow. Distinct differences in the evaluated intravascular blood pressure gradient are found among different arterial groups. The medullary artery is characterized by a pronounced pressure drop on account of the extreme length of intramedullary portion, and the blood pressure of medullary capillaries is consequently estimated at a very low level. On the contrary, the blood pressure at the terminal of the cortical artery is presumed to be high and essentially the same irrespective of different routes. The arteries of the basal ganglion divide from large arteries of the cerebral base directly as branches smaller than 300μ in radius. Owing to the small radii an abrupt pressure drop takes place immediately after the arterial entrance into the brain and the blood pressure level at the arteriolar terminal is assumed to attain a level essentially the same as that of cortical arteries in general. The particular pattern of the intravascular blood pressure gradient of the arteries of the basal ganglion is evaluated in association with the predisposition of this part to hypertensive injuries.
Senile changes of the human testis from 121 autopsy cases were histologically examined in 6 topographic parts which were divided by the microangiography, and the findings were discussed in relation to blood supply. Focal depletion of spermiogenesis with thickening of the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules appeared in the fourth and fifth decades and pigmentation of the interstitial cells later. The senile changes were not uniform in severity throughout the testis and were induced in a distribution pattern with a close relation to blood supply. Main arteries of the testis descended along the medial surface to the lower pole and turned up along the lateral surface to the upper pole. On the upward way the main arteries extended branches toward the mediastinum. Therefore, the upper pole and the posterior part adjacent to the mediastinum belonged to the distal area in the arterial supply and showed advanced senile changes in general. Hernia-like protrusions, however, were prevalent in the lower and anterior parts proximal to the arterial trunk.
In order to establish the diagnosis of hepatic tumors, hepatic venography was performed in 9 cases of primary hepatic tumors and in 17 cases of metastatic hepatic tumors. The deformity of the hepatic veins due to compression by tumors was observed in 42 per cent of the cases. Pathological anastomoses between the hepatic veins were seen in 41 per cent of the cases of metastatic tumors, but in none of the cases of primary tumors. Vascular sack and filling defects of the sinusoidal radio-opacity appeared in 1 and 2 cases of metastatic tumors, respectively. These venographic findings were characteristic of hepatic tumors, and hepatic venography was found useful in the diagnosis in hepatic tumors.
An electron microscopic study was made on the fine structural differences in the motor endplates among the red, white and intermediate muscle fibers of the human intercostal muscles and the following results were obtained: 1) In the motor endplate of the red fiber, the junctional folds appear on the whole as simple comparatively unbranched folds, while in that of the white one they are branched and anastomosed in a complicated manner. In the motor endplate of the intermediate fiber, the character of the folds is intermediate between those of the red and white fibers. 2) The sarcoplasmic area where the axonbranchlet is situated is apparently narrower in the red fiber than in the white or intermediate fibers. 3) The terminal branchlet in the red fiber is oval in shape but in the white one it has a concavity oriented towards the underlying muscle fiber. In the intermediate fiber the branchlet is intermediate between those of the red and white fibers.
The microvibration (MV) of the thenar was recorded by means of a MV recording technique in normal young adults and patients with complete A-V block. In addition to the MV, the electrocardiogram (EKG) was also traced simultaneously to determine whether the existence of the MV components is related to the pulsation of the heart. The dominant vibrations of the MV were observed to be mainly made up of two definite groups of vibrations corresponding to R and T waves of the EKG in patients with complete A-V block as well as in normal subjects. In complete A-V block, however, the intervals between the dominant vibrations of each group prolonged according to the marked lengthening of the R-R interval in the EKG. Furthermore, the correspondence between the MV and P waves in the EKG was also observed slightly in complete A-V block. The above-mentioned results show that the dominant vibrations of the MV over the human body surface mainly consist of ballistocardiographic components at rest.
A constant pressure perfusion of the sinus node artery was performed in ten vagotomized dogs. The selective administration of adenosine, AMP, ADP or ATP into this artery caused a negative chronotropic effect which was not blocked by either atropine or tetrodotoxin, but was blocked by the continuous infusion of caffeine or theophylline. In the meanwhile atrial fibrillation was readily induced by acetylcholine.