HANEW, K., SASAKI, A., SATO, S., KASAI, M., MURATA, K., SHIMIZU, Y., MURAKAMI, O. and YOSHINAGA, K. Persistence of Impaired PRL Responses to Sulpiridein Patients with PRL Secreting Pituitary Adenomas after Successful Hypophysectomy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 225-233-TRH, arginine, L-dopa, and sulpiride tests for PRL secretion were carried out in 18 control subjects and 20 patients with pituitary PRL-secreting adenomas before and after hypophysectomy. After the hypophysectomy PRL levels fell to normal ranges in 9 cases (categorized as Group I), and remained high in 11 other cases (categorized as Group II). After the operation, there were no alterations of PRL responsiveness to TRH, arginine, or to L-dopa in terms of percent change from the basal value, in either Group I or Group II. No significant differences were found in PRL responses to the above three agents between operated Group I patients and normal subjects even when expressed in absolute values. On the other hand, the PRL responses to Sulpiride in both Groups I and II improved markedly after the hypophysectomy, but the absolute response in operated Group I patients was still lower than that in normal subjects. The mean PRL value in operated Group I (mean±S.E., 13.2± 0.8ng/ml, n=9) was significantly (p<0.01) higher than in normal subjects (5.1± 0.4ng/ml, n=18). It is concluded 1) that even in hypophysectomized normoprolactinemic patients the circulating PRL may originate mainly from the residual tumor cells, and 2) that the sulpiride test is useful to detect the abnormalities of hypothalamo-pituitary axis in operated patients with PRL-secreting adenomas, whereas TRH, arginine, and L-dopa tests are less useful for such purposes.-PRL-secreting tumors; Sulpiride; TRH; L-dopa; dopaminergic abnormality
OKUBO, T., SHIBATA, H. and TAKISHIMA, T. Delay Time Correction of theGas Analyzer in the Calculation of Anatomical Dead Space of the Lung. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 235-243-By means of a mathematical model, we have studied a way to correct the delay time of the gas analyzer in order to calculate the anatomical dead space using Fowler's graphical method. The mathematical model was constructed of ten tubes of equal diameter but unequal length, so that the amount of dead space varied from tube to tube; the tubes were emptied sequentially. The gas analzyer responds with a time lag from the input of the gas signal to the beginning of the response, followed by an exponential response output. The single breath expired volume-concentration relationship was examined with three types of expired flow patterns of which were constant, exponential and sinusoidal. The results indicate that the time correction by the lag time plus time constant of the exponential response of the gas analyzer gives an accurate estimation of anatomical dead space. Time correction less inclusive than this, e.g. lag time only or lag time plus 50% response time, gives an over-estimation, and a correction larger than this results in underestimation. The magnitude of error is dependent on the flow pattern and flow rate. The time correction in this study is only for the calculation of dead space, as the corrected volume-concentration curves does not coincide with the true curve. Such correction of the output of the gas analyzer is extremely important when one needs to compare the dead spaces of different gas species at a rather faster flow rate.
SAITO, H., KITAME, F., UEMURA, Y. and ISHIDA, N. The Regulating Effectof Cholesterol Derivatives Isolated from Human Sera on Lymphocyte Response toPhytohemagglutinin. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 245-258-Cholesterol derivatives, including 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-HC), 7β-hydroxy-cholesterol (7β-HC), and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), were isolated from the Cohn fraction IV-I of normal human sera and were shown to be the moieties responsible for the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation. When 5-10μg/ml of 7α-HC, 7β-HC or 7-KC were added in vitro to lymphocyte cultures, incorporation of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) into the lymphocyte DNA was suppressed by about 50% when compared with the control. When 10-50mg/kg/day of 7α-HC, 7β-HC and 7KC were administered in vivo to skin grafts on rats, the prolongation of skin grafts was observed. The concentration of 7-KC in cancer patient sera was 2 to 3 times the amount in normal pooled human sera.
ZINSERLING, A.V., AKSENOV, O.A., MELNIKOVA, V.F. and ZINSERLING, V.A. Extrapulmonary Lesions in influenza. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 259-272-The authors, having investigated 270 autopsied cases of influenza in children, reported the possibility of a hematogenic virus dissemination from the respiratory system. In the acute stage of the disease the antigen of influenza was revealed in the liver, intestine, kidneys, brain and other organs with adequate regularity. The antigen was localized in the epithelial cells and also endothelial, ependymal and some other cells. The latter were partly accompanied by specific structural changes similar to those that occur in the respiratory system in the presence of the same disease. Besides, degenerative, exudate and, now and then, proliferative and regenerative changes which were not specific for influenza, have been found in all affected organs. Of particular interest were the results of brain study, in which viral particles were revealed by electron microscopic examination in chronic inflammatory lesions. In the experimental study carried out on 180 newborn mice by means of histological, immunofluorescent, serological and virological methods was proven the possibility of generalization of influenza, and some aspects of the pathogenesis were discussed.
YAJIMA, Y., OHTA, K., NARUI, T., ABE, R., SUZUKI, H. and OHTSUKI, M. A Case of Idiopathic Fatty Liver Detectable Only by Ultrasonography. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 273-278-A 40-year-old man was diagnosed as fatty liver according to our ultrasonographical criteria for fatty liver, i.e., liver-kidney contrast in the ultrasound mass screening of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas. He lacked any signs or symptoms, nor any known causes of fatty liver, i.e, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ingestion of alcohol or drugs. Liver biopsy of this patient revealed fatty change of about 50% of the hepatic lobules. It has been difficult to suspect the presence of latent fatty liver which lacked both the abnormality in the liver function test and hepatomegaly, and even impossible when it lacked any risk factors. In the future as the ultrasonography becomes more generally used as a primary screening examination, “idiopathic latent fatty liver”, like this patient, will be more frequently found and this, in turn, will contribute to the progress of the epidemiology and etiology of fatty liver.
YAMAKI, S., ISHIDOYA, T., OSUGA, Y. and ARAI, S. Progressive PulmonaryVascular Disease after Surgery in a Case of Patent Ductus Arteriosus with PulmonaryHypertension. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 279-288-In a 15-month-old girl with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with pulmonary hypertension, division of the PDA was undertaken, but she died of heart failure 7 months post-operatively. Morphometric study of biopsy and autopsy lungs showed that medial hypertrophy and pulmonary intimal lesions developed markedly after surgery. Severe pulmonary hypertension and hypoxemia were present preoperatively. The pulmonary hypertension remaining postoperatively and aggravated pulmonary hypoxemia are thought to have caused postoperative constriction of the pulmonary vessels and to bring about unusual medial hypertrophy. Since it is known that marked hypertrophy of the media can easily cause vasospasms, it is thought that, in the present case, the smooth muscle cells of the media became necrotic, which brought about damage to endothelial cells. Such damage, in turn, led to the development of occlusive pulmonary vascular disease.
YOKOI, T., IWASA, M. and SAGISAKA, K. A New Method to Prepare RabbitImmune Anti-M and -N Sera Using Blood Group Substance Trapped in AutologousRed Cell Ghost as an Immunogen. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 289-296 -To prepare anti-M and -N of a sufficient potency, M or N substance trapped in autologous ghost was intravenously administered to rabbits. The potency and specificity of antisera prepared were compared with antisera prepared by other immunization methods. Rabbits immunized intravenously or intramuscularly with M or N substance alone produced no significant antibodies. Immunization with the substance loading ghost produced crude antisera of relatively low titers, but they were proved to contain specific anti-M and -N after absorption procedure which were higher than those prepared by usual intravenous injection of red cells. There was remarkable difference in immunoglobulin class between antisera prepared with the substance loading ghost and that by red cell immunizations; the former consisted of IgM and IgA, and the latter of IgG and IgA. It was considered that intravenous injection of the antigen trapped in ghost is useful for preparing hemagglutinin of sufficient titers.
TORINUKI, W. and MIURA, T. Singlet Oxygen Emission at 1270nm inProtoporphyrin Solution Excited by Argon Laser. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 297-299-The direct observation of dye-photosensitized 1270nm emission of the 1Δg→3∑g- transition of molecular oxygen in liquid solution is reported. Singlet oxygen was photosensitized by argon laser excitation of protoporphyrin in carbon tetrachloride.
MASU, S., TANITA, Y., IGARASHI, M. and SEIJI, M. Immunoelectron MicroscopicExamination of IgA Deposition in Dermatitis Herpetiformis. Tohoku, J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 301-310-Ultrastructural localization of IgA in the skin of three Japanese patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) was studied with the immunoelectron microscopic technique using periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixation. In direct immunofluorescence studies, two of the three cases showed fine fibrillar deposition of IgA and the other case fine granules in the dermal papillae. In the former, the reaction products of IgA were present in the upper dermis forming various-sized aggregates which were occasionally arranged perpendicularly to the epidermis and appeared to be associated with microfibrillar bundles of the elastic tissue. Reaction products were also deposited to a lesser extent on the microfibrillar component of the elastic fibers at the lower part of the dermal papillae. However, in the latter, the reaction products were found to form smaller aggregates on and around the collagen fibrils rather than on the elastic tissue. Such a localization of IgA reaction products has not yet been reported in DH. The difference of the distribution patterns of IgA and the possible singularity of Japanese DH cases are discussed
SUZUKI, M., YOSHIDA, K., SAKURADA, T., KITAOKA, H., KAISE, K., KAISE, N., FUKAZAWA, H., YAMAMOTO, M., SAITO, S. and YOSHINAGA, K. Monodeiodinationof Thyroxine to 3, 3', 5'-Triiodothyronine in the Human Placenta. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 311-318-We studied the characteristics of monodeiodination of thyroxine to T3 and reverse T3 in the human placenta which was obtained at normal delivery. The placentas were homogenized in cold sucrose Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.5. The microsomal fraction was incubated at 37°C in the air for 1hr with 2μg of T4 in the presence of 0.05M DTT. The T3 and reverse T3 generated in the reaction mixture were extracted into cold ethanol and measured by RIA. Among the usual subcellular fractions of the placental homogenate, microsomas were most potent in deiodinating T4 to reverse T3, 17.9ng/mg protein/μg T4/60min. In microsome, production of reverse T3 from T4 was dependent upon protein concentration, incubation temperature, incubation time, pH and T4 concentration, and unstable to prior heating of the microsomal fraction. The production of T3 from T4 was negligible in the present system. Degradation of T3 in the human placenta was rapid. Although addition of anti-T3 antibody to the reaction mixture suppressed the degradation of T3, it had no effect on the net production of T3, suggesting that the obtained net T3 production rate had not been influenced by its degradation. Degradation of reverse T3 was negligible. These results indicate that the human placenta actively deiodinates T4 to reverse T3 enzymatically. This enzyme system might have some influence on the transplacental passage of thyroid hormone from the mother to the fetus.
MITSUHASHI, T., SHIMAZAKI, M., SUGINO, S., TAKEDA, T. and INARIBA, H. Morphological Studies on Proliferation and Desquamation of the Alveolar LiningEpithelium in Carrageenan-Induced Experimental Pneumonia. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 319-330-An experimental model of carrageenan-induced pneumonia in rabbits was used to study the proliferation and desquamation of alveolar lining epithelium, light and electron microscopically. Observation at 5hr after intrapulmonary injection of 0.5% lambda carrageenan solution revealed epithelial cell (predominantly type 1 pneumocyte) injury, exposing the basement membrane of the alveolar wall, and that at 40hr demonstrated an appearance of many large pneumocytes among the alveolar lining epithelium as a reparative reaction. This proliferatioe response of immature type 2 pneumocytes reached to the maximum in 60 and 72hr followed by an intense desquamative response of the excessive alveolar epithelium in 5 and 6 days. The sloughed off epithelial cells were demonstrated as cell sheets or as clusters of epithelial cells. Inflammatory infiltrates in alveolar and interstitial spaces consisted of neutrophils and monocytes (or macrophages) at early stages, and mononuclear cells or macrophages at latter stages. Observation in 2nd and 3rd week showed accumulation of macrophages with many osmiophilic lamellar bodies in the alveolar spaces. The alveolar wall lining epithelium was still cuboidal or elliptical in shape in some alveoli and membranous in the others. Thickened alveolar septa at this stage were also noted. Thus this animal model appears to be a valuable tool for further understanding of the events leading to proliferation and desquamation of the alveolar lining epithelium.
YATABE, M., TAKAHASHI, W. and HIGASHI, O. The Occurrence of Marker Cellsin Fetal Hematopoiesis of Beige (Chédiak-Higashi) Mouse. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 331-334-The presence of neutrophils and their precursors with peroxidase-positive and sudanophilic giant granules, which are characteristic of Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), in the fetal liver and blood of beige (CH), but not of the control C 57 Black, mice was observed. This finding supports the view that the prenatal diagnosis could be possible, if the fetal blood specimen is obtainable safely, assuming the occurrence of similar marker cells in fetal hematopoiesis in CHS of human.
ISHIHARA, T., MUE, S., OHMI, T., TAMURA, G., YAMAUCHI, K., IDA, S., FUYUKI, T., CHONAN, T., SHINDOH, C., SATO, K., OTSU, H., TANIGUCHI, Y. and TAKISHIMA, T. Bronchial Responses to Inhaled Histamine and Methacholineafter Influenza Virus Vaccination in Monkeys. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 335-336-Bronchial responses to inhaled histamine significantly increased on the 2nd day and the 7th day after influenza virus vaccination in monkeys. Bronchial responses to inhaled methacholine also significantly increased on the 14th day and the 21st day after the vaccination.
KODAMA, H., FUJIWARA, K., MOTOKAWA, Y., TAJIRI, H., NOSE, O. and KAMOSHITA, S. Activity of the Glycine Cleavage System in HyperammonemiaTreated with Benzoate. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1983, 140 (3), 337-338-We investigated levels of the glycine cleavage system in livers of spf-fur mutant mice with ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency treated with sodium benzoate. The activities of the glycine cleavage system in benzoate-treated spf/Y males and the control mice livers are not significantly different. We examined plasma folate level and Vit. B6 status in a patient with OTC deficiency during the therapy with benzoate. Plasma folate level and Vitamine B6 status during the therapy period and during control period are not different and these data were within normal ranges. The observation suggests that the glycine cleavage system is not the candidate for the increase of the de novo synthesis of glycine in hyperammonemic patients treated with benzoate.