MUNAKATA, H., ISEMURA, M., AIKAWA, J., KODAMA, C. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Glycosaminoglycans from Renal Brush Border Membranes of Rabbits. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 353-358-Brush border membranes were prepared from the rabbit kidney cortex by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and digested with pronase. A glycosaminoglycan fraction was isolated from the digest by ion-exchange chromatography. Electrophoretogram on cellulose acetate membrane (Separax) of the glycosaminoglycan fraction indicated the presence of two components, which were identified as chondroitin sulfate A/C and dermatan sulfate on the basis of their mobility in Separax electrophoresis and sensitivity to chondroitinase ABC. Neither hyaluronic acid nor heparan sulfate was detected. The results of high-performance liquid chromatography of the pyridylamino derivatives of unsaturated disaccharides in the digests with chondroitinase AC and ABC of the glycosaminoglycan fraction indicated that the ratio of chondroitin 4-sulfate, chondroitin 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate was 5.5:1.0:9.1
HASHIMOTO, K., SHIBUYA, T. and IMAI, S. Cardiovascular and RespiratoryEffects of Antiarrhythmic Drugs on Conscious Beagles. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 359-367-Cardiovascular effects of antiarrhythmic drugs and their effects on the respiratory rate were examined in conscious beagles. Disopyramide, 1.5mg/kg i.v., increased the blood pressure and decreased the heart rate, but higher dose of 5mg kg i.v. increased both. Disopyramide showed no central nervous side effects. Procainamide, 20 and 60mg/kg i.v., increased the blood pressure and heart rate without changing the respiratory rate. A higher dose (60mg kg iv.) of procainamide induced vomiting. Lidocaine, 2 and 6mgkg i.v., and phenytoin, 3 and 10mg/kg i.v., simultaneously increased the blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate accompanied by excitement, and with a higher dose (6mg/kg i.v.) of lidocaine, by convulsions. Verapamil, 0.1 and 0.3mg/kg i.v., induced tachycardiar-without serious neurological effects. In conscious healthy dogs cardiovascular depressant actions of antiarrhythmic drugs could only rarely be observed.
NAKAMURA, S. Total Cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol andCholine Esterase in Overseas and Japanese University Students. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 369-371-Serum lipids were studied in 97 oversew and 282 Japanese university students. As compared with Japanese, serum total cholesterol levels were low and high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was high in the oversea students, especially in Chinese and Korean students. 30-39-year-old Chinese students, moreover, showed elevated high density lipoprotein levels. Choline esterase levels were significantly lower in 30-39-year-old Chinese and Korean students than in Japanese and Taiwanese.
ISEMURA, M., YAMAGUCHI, Y., MUNAKATA, H., KUROSAWA, K., FURUYAMA, T., YOSINAGA, K., MASUDA, T., NAGAI, H., MOTOMIYA, M. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Distribution of Fibronectin and Other Connective Tissue Components in HumanPlacenta. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 373-379-Human placenta specimens obtained at term were investigated for distribution of fibronectin, collagens and glycosaminoglycans. When examined by the immunofluorescence staining technique with anti-plasma fibronectin antiserum, fibronectin was shown to be present around the fetal blood vessels and in the stroma of placental villi. The distribution of type IV collagen also was examined with specific antiserum. It was found that its distribution was similar to that of fibronectin. Conventional alcian blue staining indicated that the placental villi contained only small amounts of glycosaminoglycans. These data suggest that fibronectin and type IV collagen play important roles in tissue organization of the placental villi.
YOSHIDA, T., SHINYASHIKI, K. and NODA, K. Calmodulin Concentration inthe Uterus during Pregnancy and Influence of Sex Steroids. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 381-385-Calmodulin concentration in pregnant rat uteri increased gradually and reached a level about three times that in non-pregnant rat at term. In human beings, uterine calmodulin content at term was about three times that in non-pregnant uteri, but there was no significant difference between the levels in uteri at term with and without labor pain. Estrogen increased the rat uterine calmodulin concentration, but progesterone did not change it.
MUKADA, T., ANDOH, N. and MATSUSHIRO, T. Precancerous Lesions of theGallbladder Mucosa. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 387-394-To elucidate the morphological characteristics and the incidence of precancerous lesions of the gallbladder, 200 gallbladders removed for presumed benign diseases were examined histopathologically. Dysplastic epithelia with distinct cellular and structural atypic were graded into either mild or moderate to severe degree. Twenty -nine (14.5%) of 200 cases showed dysplasia; 5 (2.5%) was to moderate to severe degree and 24 (12%) to mild degree. Carcinoma in situ was found in 4 cases (2%) and occult invasive carcinoma in 2 cases (1%). Simple hyperplasia was seen in 54 cases (27%). Abnormal epithelia showed a male preponderace in consistent with the previous report on cancer epidemiology in Japan. Dysplasia and hyperplasia were found to have close association with chronic cholecystitis, but not with gallstones per se. It was postulated that the progression of dysplasia or carcinoma in situ into invasive carcinoma may occur in the sixties to seventies.
KATAOKA, S. and SYOJI, K. Elevated Cholecystokinin-Like Activity in theDuodenal Mucosa in Patients with Cholecystolithiasis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 395-402-Cholecystokinin (CCK)-like activities in the duodenal mucosa of the patients with cholecystolithiasis were determined with the bioassay method we established. The results obtained are as follows: The gall bladder of the patients with cholecystolithiasis following oral administration of egg yolk has contraction rates comparable to those of the normal subjects in the control group, whereas the contraction rate of the gall bladder of the patients with cholecystolithiasis following administration of caerulein was markedly lower than that of the normal subjects in the control group. The variations in the contraction of the gall bladder in time lapse following administration of caerulein to the patients with cholecystolithiasis strongly denied the possibility of either insufficient release of CCK or accelerated dissimilation of CCK in those patients. Based on the above findings, it was concluded that the sensitivity of the gall bladder to CCK decreases in the patients with cholecystolithiasis and that, in order to replenish it, the feed-back mechanism reacts to sufficiently promote the production of CCK in the duodenal mucosa. The similar mechanism was noted in the variations of the findings of normal subjects as age advanced.
GOTO, T., ABE, K., TSUNODA, K., SEINO, M., YASUJIMA, M., IMAI, Y., CHIBA, S., SATO, M., HARUYAMA, T., OMATA, K., SATO, K., TAJIMA, J., TANNO, M., KUDO, K. and YOSHINAGA, K. Active, Inactive and Total Renin Concentrations inPlasma of Hypertensive Patients. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 403-411 -To assess the role of inactive renin in hypertensive patients, active, inactive and total renin concentrations (ARC, IRC and TRC) were measured in 37 patients with hypertension of various etiologies. Inactive renin was activated by trypsin and renin concentration was measured using an excess of sheep substrate. Mean values of ARC, IRC, TRC and active renin ratio (AR ratio=ARC/TRC) were higher in 6 cases of renovascular hypertension, and lower in 6 cases of primary aldosteronism and 1 case of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism, when compared with 59 cases of normal subjects. Between ARC and IRC, a slightly positive correlation was observed. Moreover, between ARC and TRC as well as between ARC and AR ratio, close positive correlations were observed. Exceptionally, in a case of juxtaglomerular cell tumor, AR ratio was low in spite of the extremely high value of ARC. Our data suggest that the increase in circulating active renin is due to both the enhancement of the release of renin from the kidney and the increase in the activation of inactive renin, and vice versa.
IKEDA, M. and WATANABE, T. Constant Growth of Primary School Childrenthroughout Four Seasons of Year. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 413-418 -Repeated measurements of body size (11 times for weight and 4 times for height during a 13 month period) in 1982-1983, and then in 1983-1984 disclosed that primary school children, both boys and girls in every year grade from 1st to 6th, grow in weight and height almost linearly throughout a year. Seasonal variation in growth pattern, once evident in around 1960, was no longer observed. Based on the observation, a formula to predict gains in weight and height is proposed and its value for the prevention of childhood obesity is discussed.
ODA, E., AIZAWA, Y., ARAI, Y. and SHIBATA, A. Diurnal Variation of QTInterval in Patients with VVI Pacemaker. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 419-426-In nine patients with chronically implanted ventricular pacemaker (VVI), diurnal variation of the QT interval was studied. The mean age of the patients was 74.2years and underlying diseases were atrioventricular block (three patients), sick sinus syndrome (four patients) and chronic atrial fibrillation with bradycardia and heart failure (two patients). Eight of the nine patients showed longer QT intervals during sleep than during waking. Only one patient showed no change in QT interval during sleep and during wake time. The mean QT interval of the nine patients at each hour was slightly longer (9msec) during sleep than that during each awake hour (p<0.001). The prolongation of QT interval during sleep may offer a possible mechanism of some nocturnal arrhythmias.
SHIMADA, H., MISHINA, T. and MARUMO, F. The Effects of PGE2 onVasopressin- and Guanine Nucleotide-Mediated Adenylate Cyclase Activity in ToadBladder Membrane. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 427-435-PGE2 inhibited 10mU/ml vasopressin-induced osmotic water flow of the toad bladder at 2×10-8M. PGE2 suppressed vasopressin-mediated cyclic AMP accumulation in epithelial cells and also vasopressin-mediated adenylate cyclase activity in a crude homogenate of the cells. However, PGE2 had no effect on cyclic AMP dependent and independent protein phosphorylation. These findings indicate that PGE2 inhibits vasopressin-induced water flow mainly through suppression of adenylate cyclase activity, and that the role of PGE2 at that point in the reaction leading to increased water permeability following cyclic AMP production may be slight. Under conditions in which the hormone and substrate are depleted, PGE2 and guanine nucleotides, such as GTP and Gpp(NH)p, additively bring about an increase in adenylate cyclase activity.
MINAMI, R., WAGATSUMA, K., ISHIKAWA, Y., WATANABE, M., NAKAO, T. and TSUGAWA, S. Comparative Enzymology of Eleven Acid Hydrolases in CulturedAmniotic Fluid Cells, Skin Fibroblasts and Embryonic Lung Fibroblasts, and theRespective Changes with the Increasing Age of the Cell Cultures. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 437-445-Assay conditions were studied for eleven lysosomal enzymes (β-D-galactosidase, α-D-mannosidase, β-hexosaminidase, β-D-glucuronidase, α-D-galactosidase, α-D-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, β-D-glucosidase, α-L-fucosidase, α-D-neuraminidase and α-L-iduronidase) in cultured amniotic fluid cells (CAFC), cultured skin fibroblasts (CSF) and cultured embryonic lung fibroblasts (CELF), and the properties of the enzymes were compared among these cultured cells. In addition, changes in these enzymes from the three cell types were investigated between 4-6 earlier passages and 24-26 later passages. With the exception of α-D-glucosidase, α-D-neuraminidase and α-L-fucosidase, all enzymes assayed for the 4-6 earlier passages and the 24-26 later passages had the same Km values and the same pH optima, and were also unchanged with the increasing age of cell clutures, with regard to their points. The specific activities of β-D-glucuronidase, arylsulfatase, α-D-glucosidase and β-D-glucosidase for the 4-6 earlier passages increased significantly with development, though no change was observed with development in the specific activities of other enzymes. Variations were observed between the levels of these enzymes in the three cell types with the increasing age of cell cultures, such as increases in some, decreases in others and no change in still others.
MIZUSHIMA, Y. and COHEN, E.P. Immunoprotective Capability of SomaticHybrid Cells in Comparison with Parental Tumor Cells Maintained In Vitro. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 447-453-The immunogenicity of X-irradiated hybrid cells derived from fusion of ASL-1 leukemia (A origin) and LM (TK-) fibroblasts (C3H origin) was compared to X-irradiated parental ASL-1 leukemia cells maintained in vivo (V-ASL-1) and to X-irradiated ASL-1 leukemia cells maintained in vitro (C-ASL-1). Immunization with hybrid cells induced transplantation resistance against tumor rechallenge with V-ASL-1 more effectively than did immunization with V-ASL-1 tumor cells. Immunization with X-irradiated C-ASL-1 cells produced the same, or slightly stronger level of transplantation resistance than that with X-irradiated hybrid cells. These findings were observed both in A/J and in (C3H/HeJ×A/J) F1 mice. These results raise a question about whether the apparent increased immunogenicity of hybrid cells is due to a result of cell fusion or a result of their growth in vitro.
YAMAKI, S., HORIUCHI, T., MIURA, M., SUZUKI, Y., ABE, Y., ISHIZAWA, E. and KAGAWA, Y. Musculoelastosis: A Change of Small Pulmonary Arteries Found ina Case with Atrial Septal Defect and Pulmonary Hypertension. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 455-463-Interesting findings were obtained in the lung biopsy of a 46year old female patient with secundum atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. In the intima of small pulmonary arteries, there were a marked increase in elastic fibers and marked proliferation of longitudinal smooth muscle cells. The vascular lumen was markedly stenotic, but reconstruction of small pulmonary arteries indicated that all vascular lumina were patent. The case was accordingly diagnosed as operable and closure of atrial septal defect was undertaken. Three years postoperatively, the patient is well with much improved condition and lowered pulmonary arterial pressure was demonstrated by cardiac catheterization. This case had apparently serious vascular lesions due to severe intimal thickening which we labeled “musculoelastosis”, but it was found that such thickening alone did not cause peripheral pulmonary arterial occlusion. It is therefore thought to be a benign pulmonary vascular condition.
MUE, S., ISHIHARA, T., TAMURA, G., HIDA, W., SEKIZAWA, K., YAMAUCHI, K. and TAKISHIMA, T. The Participation of the Subepithelial Airway Receptor in theBronchoconstriction of Monkeys. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 465-475-In order to elucidate the mechanism of the bronchial response of monkeys to constrictive stimuli, the effects of pretreatment with aerosolized lidocaine, atropine, and isoproterenol were studied. Treatment with aerosolized lidocaine and atropine not only extinguished the cough reflex, but also decreased bronchial susceptibility to aerosolized methacholine. Moreover, the pretreatment with lidocaine blocked the histamine challenge, but atropine did not. The aerosolized lidocaine decreased the bronchoconstriction induced with methacholine, but not with histamine. Pretreatment with over 1% of isoproterenol did not extinguish the cough reflex. However, this dose of isoproterenol did suppress an increase in Rrs due to the challenge of both methacholine and histamine. Isoproterenol also decreased the bronchoconstriction due to the previous challenge by both methacholine and histamine. The antagonistic effects of lidocaine, atropine, and isoproterenol on the broncho-constriction of monkeys are discussed in relation to the subepithelial receptor.
ISEMURA, M., MUNAKATA, H., KOSAKAI, M., YAMAGUCHI, Y., AIKAWA, J. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Unusual Low Affinity of Human Liver Fibronectin for Gelatin. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 145 (4), 477-478-Fibronectin extracted from the human livers was shown to have very low affinity for gelatin unlike plasma fibronectin. It was demonstrated that this unusual property of liver fibronectin was not due to its proteolytic fragmentation.