The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 53 , Issue 1-2
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
  • Kazuo Hironaka
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-9
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The “E. Z.'s” of the electrical phosphene and of light for fovea and periphery were studied. in the dark adaptation of three subjects.
    The maximum “E. Z.'s” were 180 msec, -189.2 msec. for foveal vision, 304 msec., 280 msec. and 357, 8 msec. for peripheral vision at 50°, 30° and 5° respectively, and 1.75.4 msec.-178.0 msec. for electrical stimula-tion.
    The minimum “E. Z.'s” were 64.7 msec.-69.3 msec. for the foveal vision, and 60.0-72.7 msec. for electrical stimulation.
    The “E. Z.'s” of the electrical phosphene coincides fairly well with that of light for the fovea with respect to their maximum and minimum values and to the course of “E. Z.'s”-intensity-curves, while it differs entirely from the “E. Z.'s” of light for the periphery.
    The cones are the most sensitive element of the retina to electrical stimulation and also respond to it with the greatest rapidity. Therefore an electric stimulus can reveal mainly the effect on the cones even in the dark adaptation.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Zensaku Yosizawa
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 10
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Izumi Koike
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 11-19
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. The various factors, i.e., pre-adaptation, stimulus intensity, stimu-lus area of retina, which are necessary for the appearance of the critical stage (dark adaptation) of perception time by white light stimulus, have been systematically pursued.
    2. The critical stage is retarded and much more manifest when the light adaptation is sufficiently strong in intensity.
    3. It is necessary to, have an appropriate stimulus intensity for the appearance of the critical stage of perception time. This lower extreme is found in the threshold value of the cone of the dark adapted eye, and its upper extreme is found in the region nearest the maximum stimulus in-tensity relative to the perception time of dark adapted eye. It does not appear outside of the above mentioned range. That is, in the 5° peripheral, it is most appropriate within the range, 3.4×10-4 Stilb, to 4.1×10-1 Stilb. The above is found to be in accord with the reports of Fröhlich and the others.
    4. The critical stage of perception time in the peripheral vision is evident in appearance, but not quite evident in the foveal vision. This is not in accord with the results of Vogelsang.
    5. The critical stage of perception time, is interpreted as becoming-evident in appearance when both the cone and rod are subject to appro-priate stimulations.
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  • Tuneo Nagaoka
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 21-27
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tuneo Nagaoka
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 29-33
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) Incubated with snail β-glucuronosidase, desaminochondrosin exhibited increase of reducing iodine.
    2) From a digestate of desaminochondrosin glucuronic acid was separated as cinchonidine salt.
    3) Emulsin could not hydrolyze menthol-α-glucuronic acid.
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  • Yutaka Hamasato
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 35-43
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tadashi Arai
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 45-54
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The whole figure of the present data will be given as, a whole once in the tabular form, Tab. VI, and again briefly in the following paragraphs.
    The medulla of cattle, horses and dogs involves the adrenaline, determinable by the chemical methods, as the Folin, the Suto, the Stuber and the Shaw, in about 1% of tissue and that by the rabbit intestine seg-ment method in about 1.5%. But, exactly examined, the values obtained by these chemical methods not only do not check with each other, but there are also definite differences not negligible. And they are different accord-ing to the animal species, as readily seen in the summary table.
    On the whole, while the Suto method yields commonly the smallest .amount of adrenaline, or always a smaller amount than the Folin, the: Stuber and the rabbit intestine segment, the Shaw method gives to the bovine and horse suprarenal medullary tissue a similar value to the Suto, but to the dog medullarly tissue and rabbit suprarenal a definitely smaller -one than the Suto method. Notwithstanding that the Suto method and the Stuber are similarly the reaction with mercuric chloride, and they give quite the same amount of adrenaline to the dog's suprarenal medulla and to the rabbit suprarenals, they give on the other hand dissimilar value for the bovine and horse medullary tissues, such as 11% by the Stuber and 10% by the Suto for the bovine tissue and 11.5% by the Stuber and 10.5% by the Suto for the horse tissue.
    Briefly recapitulated: The methods of Stuber et al and of Shaw have been further added in solving the problem how the active principles in the suprarenal medulla, which acts as adrenaline or epinephrine, both physio-logically and chemically, are to be appreciated duly. They gave us then further evidences for our conviction that it is not legitimate to assume -only an active principle such as the adrenaline or epinephrine exists solely there, but the matter is of much complex nature.
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  • Tadashi Arai
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 55-57
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The colorimetrical method of Shaw of estimating adrenaline (or epine-phrine) gives to the venous blood from the suprarenal gland in the dog (anesthetized with ether) a similar or somewhat larger amount of epine-phrine (1-2 times), compared with the rabbit intestine segment method, while the relation is quite reverse in the case with the suprarenalmedullary tissue of the same species of animal. The amount of epinephrine deter-minable there by the intestine segment method doubles that of the Shaw test.
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  • Toyoji Wada
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 59-68
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) In 6 cases of the subjects, electrographic changes induced by car-diazol convulsion were observed by direct recording technique. 2) The direct influence of cardiazol upon the cortex in man was experimented by local application. 3) Excepting of several findings, the general resem-blances in corticogram and EEG recorded via the scalp were capable to recognize. 4) After ending of cardiazol injection, the cortex falls down at first into excitation state, and then, it shifts into convulsion with significant convulsive discharge consisted from spikes of ca. 10 per second, which enlarge gradually those potentials, figuring a sort of damped-vibration possible to express as A=pekx, which may refer an existence of the neuronal process of synchronized propagation of the cortical hyperactivity. 5) In cases of nonconvulsive response, only the cortical excitation was observed. 6) The controlling mechanism of the subcortical part for occurrence of convulsion was commented. 7) Simultaneously with recovering from un-consciousness, there occurs the alpha-rhythm in corticogram, but the com-plete recovery of the subcortical pattern from the abnormal functional state seems to bring the complete recovery of conscious condition.
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  • Minor Ito
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 69-72
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Yoshio Yoshida
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 73-76
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Yoshio Yoshida
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 77-81
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Yoshio Yoshida
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 83-87
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Minor Ito
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 89-92
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Satoshi Sato
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 93-102
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Y. Hosoya, H. S. Fang, M. T. Peng
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 103-108
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    In this study we have found that the oral administration of NAA produced an improvement in rod dark adaptation. The duration of the effect and the minimal effective dose varied in different individuals. Although vitamin C has a similar effect, yet this was only slight and transient. The combined effect of NAA and vitamin C on rod adaptation was stronger and more prolonged than either singly.
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  • Y. Hosoya, H. S. Fang, M. T. Peng
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 109-113
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    (1) Choline hydrochloride per os improves dark adaptation in normal man.
    (2) The said effect appears about one hour after the intake and lasts some 5 hours after 2 gm. and 24-31 hours after 3gm. of choline hydrochloride.
    (3) There is no side action except for transient and slight salivation after choline hydrochloride intake.
    (4) The relationship between the speed of visual purple regenera-tion and the ability of dark adaptation is discussed.
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  • Hwai Sze Fang
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 115-124
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The following conclusions have been made on the effects of six drugs on cone and rod dark adaptation:
    (a) There is some improvement in cone dark adaptation after oral administration of NAA. (250-500mg.) and SN. (3.5-5mg.).
    (b) There is some improvement in rod dark, adaptation after oral administration of NAA. (250mg.-500mg.), AH.. (3.5-5mg.), PH. (10-12mg.) and VC. (200mg.), (arranged in order of duration and strength of effect).
    (c)- There is no improvement in either cone or rod dark adaptation after oral administration of NA. intake (250-500mg.).
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  • Zensaku Yosizawa
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 125-135
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) Pure A group carbohydrate from pig stomach mucus possesses glucosamine and galactose as the sugar component molecules but neither mannose nor fucose nor chondrosamine.
    2) The above preparation of the sero-reactive polysaccharide involved leucine or isoleucine, valine or methionine, proline and arginine but no amino acids else.
    3) A-and B-group carbohydrates from human gastric juice have no chondrosamine in their molecule, but the alcohol-insoluble matter of O gastric juice gave a chromatogram showing a spot corresponding in position to chondrosamine.
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  • Kazuo Saito
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 137-144
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The suprarenal vein blood, shut up in the cava vein pouch, prepared in situ in the dog under ether, was tested of the epinephrine by means of the rabbit intestine segment. The course of disappearance of the rabbit intestine segment. The course of disappearance of, epine-phrine in the blood, flowed out from the suprarenal glands and left in the natural conditions as possible, was followed. The epinephrine, as ex-pressed by the intestine movement inhibiting ability, was found di-minished by one-fourth at the end of 10min., by a half at that of 20min., by two-thirds at that of 30min. and so forth. The figures in the earlier periods coincide well with those of Sato, who made similar experiments with the jugular vein and adrenaline solution for a short length of time. When he shut the carotid artery, the inactivation prog-ressed more rapidly.
    The rapidity of inactivation of epinephrine in the blood in the natural condition, as possible, is thus proved as definitely more prompt in comparison with the blood, defibrinated; of the latter the present writer has his own experience, the results of which check well with the previous works.
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  • Saburo Takita
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 145-148
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Y. Hosoya, H. S. Fang, M. T. Peng, T. F. Hwang
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 149-154
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    (1) After 5gm. of creatine intake it produced a depressed effect on the ability of dark adaptation with rise in threshold. The effect varied in different individuals.
    (2) After 5gm. of methionine intake it produced an improved effect on the ability of dark adaptation with lowering of threshold. The. duration of such effect lasted about 24-32 hours.
    (3); The possible relationship between the effect of creatine and the effect after heavy muscular exercise on dark adaptation is suggested.
    (4) The effects of creatine and methionine on the speed of visual purple regeneration and the ability of dark adaptation is discussed.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Zensaku Yosizawa
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 155-159
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Ryu-ichi Ikeda
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 161-166
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The present observations were done on human beings, the healthy and the patients suffering from the kakke as well. The chief data may be summarized as follows.
    1. Youths, who neglect physical exercise, apt to suffer from the kakke, if the nutritious conditions, especially the amount of the- vitamin B, be taken practically same to those who remain quite healthy;
    2. Disaccharide, as milk sugar, does not effect any development of the disease, while polysaccharide as starch, taken in the amount to furnish the same amount of fuel value, acts to produce it.
    3. Unpolished rice, if it will be cooked for a long time in the form of gruel, cannot effect to cure the kakke, while rice-bran, made vitamin B free by means of alcohol, acts to lessen the disease.
    Such outcomes apparently give us some warnings against taking the deficiency of vitamin B as the sole cause of the kakke disease, as several authors commonly assume, the various materials, pathological and clinical as well, put forwarded by a number of authorities in Tokyo, etc. what are concisely presented above, being taken also into account.
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  • Tsuneo Arakawa
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 167-169
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    A method for the estimation of pyruvic acid in human milk using 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine wag described, including the following two points of modification: 1. Utilizing chemodazol for the deprotenization of human milk and 2. the use of monoiodoacetic acid for the inhibition of increas-ing pyruvate value in human milk left to stand.
    The method is, as above described, a colorimetric one, so the final identification shall be made by strictly chemical method. We shall be able to report such a result in near future.
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  • Tsuneo Arakawa
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 171-175
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1) Pyruvic acid in human milk with different Arakawa's reaction was determined using my own modification.
    2) Human milk positive to Arakawa's reaction contained smaller amounts of pyruvate than the Arakawa-negative milk, -and milk with inter-mediate Arakawa's reaction showed intermediate values of milk pyruvate between those positive and negative to Arakawa's reaction.
    This work was carried out by a Grant from the Foundation for Promotion of Scientific Research of the Ministry of Education. Prof. Akira Sato.
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  • Rin Hikichi
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 177-181
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Rin Hikichi
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 183-187
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Rin Hikichi
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 189-193
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Kietsu Igarashi
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 195-199
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    For the measurement of sedimentation rate, I added citrate solution to the blood taken from the patient and mixed them well and then divided it into two test tubes. I immediately measured the sedimentation rate of one for one hour in 20°C incubator, I laid the other for 24 hours in 20°C in-cubator, and mixing it well again, I put it into a pipette, and measured the rate after an hour and then I compared the two.
    1. In cases of cancer (mainly carcinoma of stomach) 94, 2 per cent of the examples showed that the sedimentation rate in 24 hours was over 80 per cent of that in one hour.
    2. In cases of other than cancer only 5, 6 per cent of the examples showed the same phenomenon above mentioned.
    3. These facts showed a great significance concerning the auxiliary method for cancer diagnosis.
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  • Koiti Motokawa, Kituya Iwama
    1950 Volume 53 Issue 1-2 Pages 201-206
    Published: December 25, 1950
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The human eye was stimulated by sinusoidal alternating currents of varying frequencies in order to study the relation between the threshold voltage and the frequency. The strength-frequency curve obtained in this way showed three minima at about 18, 37 and 53 c. p. s. These minima appeared most conspicuously under moderate light adaptation of the eye.
    Similar results were obtained with constant current pulses of varying frequencies. In the above experiments, the stimulating current was increased or decreased slowly and steadily. When the eye was stimulated by sudden make of stimulating currents, the minima were flattened only to a slight degree. This finding suggests that the minima under considera-tion were produced by resonance, and the appearance of multiple minima in the strength-frequency curve indicates that there are as many excitable tissues with different time constants in the human retina.
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