1. The total body water was estimated by the antipyrine method in normal subjects and edematous patients. 2. The total body water averaged 56.4% (range 39.6 to 72.6%) in 12 normal males, and averaged 48.6% of their body weight (range 35.0 to 61.3%) in 11 normal females. It presented a remarkable individual variability: it was high in lean subjects and low in obese subjects. 3. Edematous patients were not always differentiated from normal subjects in the percentage of the total body water to their body weight. But a borderline can be drawn between normal subjects and edematous patients by expressing the total body water in the percentage to their standard body weight: About 60% of the standard body weight is the upper limit of the total body water in normal subjects, while the total body water exceeded 60% of the standard body weight in most of the edematous patients.
1. The antipyrine space (the total body water), the thiocyanate space and the mannitol space (the extracellular space) were simultaneously determined in 9 normal subjects and 12 edematous patients. 2. The extracellular fluid amounted to about 20% of the body weight or 35% of the total body water, and the intracellular fluid to about 35% of the body weight or 65% of the total body water in normal subjects. The extra- and intracellular fluids were more closely correlated with the total body water and the standard body weight than the actual body weight. 3. In cardiac and renal edema both the extra- and intracellular fluids increased, while in nephrosis the intracellular fluid decreased. 4. The edema fluid was derived first from the extracellular fluid and the shift of the intracellular fluid did not follow the decrease of the extracellular fluid in recovery from edema. 5. The thiocyanate-mannitol space ratio averaged 1.18 (range 1.13 to 1.22) in normal subjects. The higher value of thiocyanate-mannitol space ratio which is seen in edematous patients is considered as a criterion for intracellular abnormalities in edema.
1. Group A and O lipids were separated in an electrophoretically homogeneous state from human lungs of individuals belonging to respective blood groups, although group specificity became a little ambiguous during the course of preparation in accord with the group conversion in vitro of the pig lung group lipid which had been discovered by Masamune and Akama. 2. a) The preparations showed no discrepancies of solubility and N, P and galactose contents between Groups A and O. b) The Group A and O lipids both contained aspartic and glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, valine and/or methionine and phenylalanine as amino acids, and the hexosamines and galactose as sugars. Choline, glycerophosphoric acid, a fatty acid or acids and a higher alcohol or alcohols were also detected in the both group lipids. c) Either of those group lipids was devoid of mannose, L-fucose, inositolphosphoric acid, plasmal and sphingosine. In short, no chemical difference was found between these Group A and O lipids in so far as examined.
1. Two anemia-inducing substances (“KIK factor I” and “II”) were prepared from gastric juices of stomach cancer patients. The cor-responding substances were also separated from gastric juices of non-cancerous patients for comparison. 2. “KIK factor I” is assumed as a mixture of two mucopolysac-charides KIK factor I (pure) and the corresponding mucopolysaccharide secreted by the normal part of the gastric mucosa, and “KIK factor II” a mixture of two glucidamins KIK factor II (pure) and the corresponding mucoprotein secreted by the normal part of the gastric mucosa. 3. “KIK factor I” was much more effective than “KIK factor II” in causing anemia. 4. The substances from non-cancerous gastric juices were yielded III Substances from Non-cancerous Gastric Juices much less, and were also less in anemia-inducing power or entirely devoid of this power. Furthermore, they diverged from “KIK factors” in quantitative composition and optical rotation. 5. “KIK factors” and the corresponding preparations from non-cancerous gastric juices possessed almost no blood group potencies.
Using the method of electrostimulation by Motokawa and a flicker apparatus the effect of light upon the electrical sensitivity of the eye was studied in comparison with the critical fusion frequency (CFF) at the fovea and in the retinal peripheries. The light-dark ratio of flicker was 1:1, and the frequency of flicker was held just above the CFF in the measurement of electrical excitability. 1. At the fovea the CFF increased linearly with the log intensity of illumination. The increase in electrical excitability following illumina-tion showed the same linear relation to the log intensity as the CFF. 2. At periphery 20° the CFF- log intensity curve consisted of two parts, belonging to scotopic and photopic vision. A similar double structure could be observed in ζ-log intensity curves where ζ denotes the magnitude of increase in electrical excitability measured at 1.5 or 3 seconds from the end of illumination. 3. After the method of Motokawa the rod-process was measured in isolation. The magnitude of the rod-process versus log intensity showed no double structure. The curve increased with rising intensities till about 2 log units, and then decreased at 20°. 4. At periphery 50° there was no such decline in the magnitude of the rod-process. The decline observed at 20° was attributed to the in-hibitory effect of the cones upon the rods.