In order to investigate the effect of insulin treatment upon the secretion of extrapancreatic glucagon, arginine infusion was performed in normal dogs and alloxan diabetic dogs with or without insulin treatment at conscious and anesthetized states. In a series of experiments with conscious dogs, alloxan diabetic dogs revealed not only elevated fasting levels of plasma glucagon but also exaggerated glucagon response to arginine. Insulin treatment in the alloxan dogs reduced the fasting plasma glucagon levels as well as responsiveness of glucagon to arginine. In the experi-ments with anesthetized dogs, plasma glucagon in the portal vein of the normal dogs rose only slightly in response to arginine infused after total pancreatectomy. In contrast, the alloxan diabetic dogs revealed an increase in plasma glucagon following arginine infusion performed after pancreatectomy. The response of plasma glucagon to arginine was reduced after pancreatectomy in the alloxan diabetic dogs with insulin treatment. Total immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) measured by a non-specific antiserum, increased in response to arginine after pancreatectomy in both the normal and alloxan diabetic dogs. Insulin treatment reduced an exaggerated response of total IRG in alloxan diabetic dogs. From these experiments, it is concluded that alloxan diabetic dogs have an increased response of plasma glucagon and extrapancreatic glucagon, which is reduced by insulin treatment. Furthermore, the difference in response of plasma glucagon to arginine in alloxan diabetic dogs and depancreatized dogs indicates that deficiency of insulin as well as pancreatic glucagon plays an important role in the secretion of extrapancreatic glucagon.
HMM-decorated filaments could be observed in the leukocyte nucleus under an electron microscope. The filaments were distributed in parallel or randomly among chromatin granules and showed “arrowhead” structures similar to those of cytoplasmic filaments. These observations suggest that the leukocyte nucleus may possess contractile filaments containing actins which probably function in the structural transformation of the nucleus.
Micro-scale isolation of sulfated glycopeptide from tissue was achieved by successive application of pronase digestion (Step 1), cetylpyridinium chloride-fractionation (Step 2), crude heparinase digestion or chondroitinase ABC digestion plus nitrous acid treatment (Step 3) and preparative cellulose acetate membrane-electrophoresis (Step 4). By this method, sulfated glycopeptide was obtained in a high yield from estrogen-treated rabbit uterus.
The effects of D-penicillamine on T-lymphocytes (rosette forming cells) and B-lymphocytes (surface IgG- and surface IgM-bearing cells) in peripheral blood of 13 patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis were investigated at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks of treatment. At the same time, the determination of the concentrations of serum immunoglobulins and RA tests were carried out, and the rheumatoid activity index was calculated. The administration of D-pencillamine caused a gradual increase in the percentage of T-lymphocytes and a concomitant decrease in the percentage of B-lymphocytes with time. It was found that the tendency toward reduction of the percentage of surface IgM-bearing lymphocytes was more remarkable and accelerated than that of surface IgG-bearing lymphocytes. A decrease in the concentrations of serum IgM and IgG was observed in association with these findings. The agglutination in RA-test became significantly weaker in about half of the cases. Also the rheumatoid activity index became gradually smaller after treatment. The marked decrease in the percentage of B-lymphocytes and in the concentration of serum immunoglobulins may be related to the inhibition of the production of abnormal immunoglobulins.
Male adult albino rabbits received, during a period of two weeks, a daily subcutaneous injection of aldosterone, 150 μg/kg body weight. Twenty-four hr after the last injection, bile was collected during two hr under anaesthesia, then the liver was removed and submitted to cytochrome P-450 measurements and microscopic analyses. Red blood cell sodium content was measured before and after aldosterone treatment. In animals treated with aldosterone, compared with controls, we found: (1) a significant diminution (p<0.01) of bile flow rate, of sodium biliary excretion and of biliary bile acid output; (2) a significant increase (p<0.001) of liver cytochrome P-450; (3) hyaline modifications of hepatocytes without necrosis or steatosis; (4) a proliferation of liver smooth endoplasmic reticulum; (5) an increase (p<0.001) of red blood cell sodium content.
The effect of triamterene on urinary excretion of prostaglandin E was studied, and the results were compared with those obtained with spironolactone. Urinary excretion of immunoreactive prostaglandin E was measured radioimmunologically. Triamterene was administered in a dose of 100 mg/day for 8 days to 7 patients with essential hypertension. Following the administration of triamterene, urinary prostaglandin E tended to increase. However, the increment was not significant. The lack of significant increase in urinary prostaglandin E excretion during the administration of triamterene contrasted with our previous finding with spironolactone, in which a significant increase in prostaglandin E excretion was observed on the first day of spironolactone administration. Urinary Na excretion and urinary Na/K ratio were significantly increased and urine volume also tended to increase following the administration of triamterene. Plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration were increased in all cases. However, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and urinary prostaglandin E. These results suggest that the effect of triamterene on renal prostaglandin E synthesis is different from that of spironolactone and that the change in urinary prostaglandin E after the administration of triamterene is not the reflection of the change in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
The percentile volumes υA, υB and υD of A, B and D cells in the islets of Langerhans were histometrically estimated in the pancreases from 59 autopsy cases including maturity- and growth-onset diabetics and nondiabetics. Volumetry was performed microscopically by point counting method using a square-lattice eyepiece, then the total A, B and D cell volumes VA, VB and VD were calculated from the total islet volume Vi of the pancreas estimated separately. The measurement disclosed a prominent difference in VB between the three groups. Namely, it was only 0.156 and 0.388 cm3 in the growth- and maturity-onset diabetics, much smaller values than 0.636 cm3 in nondiabetics. The simultaneous investigation on clinical records revealed a negative correlation between VB and the maximum blood sugar level during GTT, showing that VB reflects grossly the degree of glucose tolerance of the individual. The smaller VB in diabetes was attributed to the diminution of Vi because υA, υB and υD were almost the same regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. These results strongly suggested a failure of insulin production in diabetes due to quantitative deficiency of B cells.
The biological activity of a hot-water extract from delipidated BCG, designated as HSA (Hot-water Soluble Adjuvant), was investigated. The HSA did not induce hyperreactivity to bacterial endotoxin. The hot-water extract from which nucleic acids had been removed by streptomycin (SM-HSA) was found to enhance the delayed-type hypersensitivity as evidenced by the results of footpad reaction of mice. The HSA and SM-HSA could be injected to mice by an intraperitoneal route for 20 consecutive days without undesirable side effects. A comparative study was made on the effects of HSA in relation to the duration and doses of treatment with HSA using the ddI mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180. The most remarkable effect was observed when 0. 25 mg of HSA had been injected for 20 consecutive days. Also SM-HSA was found to exert antitumor activity when applied in the same manner as above. These results suggest that the presence of nucleic acids is not related to the biological and antitumor activities of the hot-water extract.
A 72-year-old woman was diagnosed as multiple myeloma. Her plasma contained IgG-cryoglobulin consisting of both κ and λ light chains, and β1C/1A. Such unique cryoglobulinemia has been reported in 2 cases in the literature, but never in Japan.
The effects of tartrazine on the synthesis of prostaglandin-like substances (PGLS) from arachidonic acid in isolated perfused guinea pig lung, and on the contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal tissues induced by histamine, acetyl-choline, bradykinin, serotonin and prostaglandin F2α were studied. The synthesis of PGLS from arachidonic acid was not inhibited by tartrazine. The contractile responses of guinea pig tracheal tissues induced by various bronchoconstrictors were potentiated in the presence of tartrazine. These results may suggest that tartrazine-induced asthma is not induced by inhibition of PGLS synthesis, but induced by potentiation of bronchoconstrictor responses.