YANAI, K., MIYABAYASHI, S., IINUMA, K., TADA, K., FUKUDA, H., ITO, M. and MATSUZAWA, T. Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose and CerebrospinalFluid Monoamine Metabolites in Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 103-109 - Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglu) and cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites were measured in two cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with different clinical courses. A marked decrease in rCMRglu was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly developing SSPE (3.6-4.2mg/100g brain tissue/min). However, the rCMRglu was preserved in the caudate and lenticular nuclei of the patient (7.7mg/100g/min). The rCMRglu in a patient with slowly developing SSPE revealed patterns and values similar to those of the control. Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites; homovanilic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, were decreased in both rapidly and slowly developing SSPE. These data indicated that rCMRglu correlated better with the neurological and psychological status and that dopaminergic and serotonergic abnormalities have been implicated in pathophysiology of SSPE.
MORITA, T., WADA, I., SUZUKI, T. and TSUCHIDA, S. Characterization ofα-Adrenoceptor Subtypes Involved in Regulation of Ureteral Fluid Transport. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152(2), 111-118 - Experiments were carried out in the dog by the use of experimental procedure which permits to assess independently changes in uretheral peristaltic frequency, bolus volume and intraluminal pressure and flow volume in order to characterize α-adrenoceptor subtypes involved in regulation of ureteral urine transport. Norepinephrine caused an increase in ureteral peristaltic freqency, an elevation in intraureteral baseline and contractile pressure and a decrease in bolus volume, with a resultant decrease in the rate of fluid transport. Phenylephrine (α1-agonist) and clonidine (α2-agonist) caused the effects similar to those of norepinephrine on peristaltic frequency, intraureteral baseline and contractile pressure, and bolus volume. Phentolamine (non-selective α-antagonist) and prazosin (α1-antagonist) caused a decrease in ureteral peristaltic frequency, and a fall in intraureteral baseline and contractile pressure, and yohimbine (α2-antagonist) abolished peristalsis and bolus formation. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the rate of fluid transport. These data suggest that the ureteral urine transport is controlled by activation of both α1- and α2-adrenoceptors through regulation of peristaltic frequency and bolus volume.
AONUMA, S., ARIJI, F., OIZUMI, K. and KONNO, K. Electron Microscopy ofPseudomonas aeruginosa Treated with Sulbenicillin and Dibekacin. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 119-128 - A possible mechanism responsible for the combined effects of sulbenicillin and dibekacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa TAM 1007 was investigated. The bactericidal activity of the above two drugs in combination was very strong. The regrowth of test strains after removal of the drugs was suppressed markedly, even when they were exposed to sulbenicillin plus dibekacin at a subinhibitory concentration of individual drugs. Sulbenicillin caused elongation of the bacterial cells. At the early stage of elongation, no demonstrable changes of ultrastructure of the cell wall were observed. At the late stage, lysis of the peptidoglycan layer occurred and spheroplast was formed. However, most of the outer membrane of the cell wall remained intact. Sulbenicillin acts upon the peptidoglycan layer, but not on the outer membrane. Thus it is difficult for sulbenicillin alone to cause cell lysis. On the other hand, dibekacin caused destruction of ribosomes and lysis of the outer membrane of the cell wall. Both sulbenicillin and dibekacin act on the cell wall, the former on the peptidoglycan layer (the inner membrane) and the latter on the outer membrane. The combined use of sulbenicillin and dibekacin caused elongation of bacilli and severe destruction of the inner and outer membranes of the cell wall. These morphological changes occurred even when the concentration of the individual drug was lower than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Furthermore, the cells elongated by sulbenicillin were ruptured easily when treated with dibekacin subsequently. The bacilli treated with dibekacin at a concentration lower than MIC and then treated with sulbenicillin at a concentration lower than MIC showed a marked elongation of the cells, which indicated that the effects of sulbenicillin was enhanced by dibekacin. These findings suggested strongly that sulbenicillin and dibekacin act on cell wall constituents and that their effects were complementary and synergistic.
KONO, H., FURUHASHI, N., FUKAYA, T., SHINKAWA, O., TAKAHASHI, T., TSUJIEI, M. and YAJIMA, A. Serum Unconjugated Estriol Levels during SpontaneousLabor. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2) 129-132 We measured maternal serum unconjugated estriol (SUE3) levels in 244 cases (218 cases with labor and 26 without labor) and investigated the relationships among several obstetrical factors and SUE3 levels. There was no significant difference in the SUE3 level between the group with labor and the group without labor. However, the SUE3 level decreased gradually with prolonged duration of labor in multipara. There were significant positive correlations between the SUES levels and birth weights (n=82, r=0.375, p<0.01) or placental weights (n=82, r=0.381, p<0.01) in the multipara with labor. The SUE3 levels of fetal distress cases (n=30, 20.0±8.6 ng/ml) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those without fetal distress (n=188, 24.5±9.7ng/ml). These data suggest that maternal SUE3 might have been affected with feto-placental function, even after the onset of labor SUE3 levels decrease with prolonged duration of labor.
KONO, H., FURUHASHI, N., SHINKAWA, O., TAKAHASHI, T., TSUJIEI, M. and YAJIMA, A. The Maternal Serum Cortisol Levels after the Onset of Labor. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152(2), 133-137 - We measured maternal cortisol levels after the onset of labor. Blood from 82 primiparas and 48 multiparas were collected 124 times and 60 times, respectively. When duration of labor was within 3hr, there were no differences in cortisol levels between the primiparous (n=11, 50.4±7.0μg/100ml, mean±S.E.) and multiparous (n=14, 37.8±4.3μg/100ml). However, when duration of labor was from 3 to 6hr, cortisol levels in the primiparas (n=20, 59.7±5.1μg/100ml) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the multiparas (n=22, 46.8±2.9μg/100 ml). In cases of duration of labor from 6 to 9, cortisol level of the primiparas (n=24, 64.3±4.4μg/100ml) were also significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in multiparas (n=12, 49.4±4.7μg/100 ml). When duration of labor was more than 9hr there was no significant difference in cortisol level between the primiparas and multiparas. Maternal cortisol level had a significant (p<0.01) negative correlation (n=166, r=-0.243, Y=-0.09X+30.47) with unconjugated estriol level. These data suggest that maternal cortisol levels after the onset of labor are slightly different between the primiparous and multiparous, and that maternal unconjugated estriol levels decrease owing to reduction of the feto-placental blood circulation accompanied with uterus contraction during labor.
YAMAGUCHI, A., MIURA, I., MIURA, A. B. and AMANO, Y. Establishment andCharacterization of T-Cell Lines (Yana-I and Yana-II) Derived from a Patientwith Chronic Adult T -Cell Leukemia (ATL) . Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 139-149-ATL-cell lines producing C-type retroviruses were established by culture of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a patient with chronic ATL. These cell lines had the surface feature of inducer/helper T-cells with electron microscopic finding of C-type retrovirus on the cell surface. Chromosome analysis revealed the presence of a marker chromosome, but did not identify 7 trisomy nor 14q+. Of the cell lines, the line established by culture with TCGF was named “Yana-I” and the line established by culture of Yana-I without adding TCGF was named “Yana-II”. Serum ATLA-antibody was positive in 1.5% of the healty individuals examined (4/257). Among malignant lymphoma patients, ATLA antibody was positive in none of the patients with B-cell type lymphoma (0/10) and Hodgkin's disease (0/2). In contrast, ATLA antibody was found in half of the patients with T-cell type lymphoma (3/6) and all with ATL (4/4). This suggested that C-type retrovirus in closely associated with ATLL.
AOSHIMA, K. Epidemiology of Renal Tubular Dysfunction in the Inhabitantsof a Cadmium-Polluted Area in the Jinzu River Basin in Toyama Prefecture. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 151-172 Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m), α1-microglobulin (α1-m), amino-nitrogen, glucose, calcium, phosphorus, cadmium concentrations, and pH values were analyzed in urine samples from 187 females aged 55-66 years in the Jinzu River basin, which is known to be a cadmium-polluted area, and from 32 controls living in two adjacent reference areas in 1983-1984. Mean urinary β2-m, α1-m, amino-nitrogen, glucose, cadmium concentrations and pH values in the inhabitants of the Jinzu River basin were significantly higher than those in the adjacent reference areas. Sixty-four inhabitants in a cadmium-polluted area were found to have renal tubular dysfunction with urinary β2-m level exceeding 1mg/g creatinine and urinary glucose level exceeding 100mg/g creatinine. The severity of renal tubular dysfunction in several inhabitants were comparable to those of the patients with Itai-itai disease. Mean cadmium concentrations in rice (mean: 0.32-0.57ppm) which has been daily consumed by the inhabitants of the Jinzu River basin were significantly higher than those in the reference areas (mean: 0.12-0.13ppm). The close relationship between cadmium exposure and the degree of renal tubular dysfunction was well demonstrated by principal component analysis.
NAKADA, T., SATO, H., SAITO, Y. and FUJIMURA, S. Detection of Early Lung Cancer. Results of Radiologic and Cytologic Screening in the Miyagi Program. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152(2), 173-186-Eighty-eight lung cancers including 82 primary and 6 metastatic tumors were detected by chest x-ray examination of a total of 363, 320 participants in Miyagi Prefecture in Japan during 3 years period from 1982 to 1984. Sputum cytology was performed in the high-risk group (above 50 years of age with cigarette index above 600) of the total participants during the same period. This detected 67 patients with malignant tumors including 5 with cancer of the upper respiratory tract and 62 with primary lung cancer. Fifty-one of 67 cancers (82.3%) detected by sputum cytology were radiographically occult lung cancers. The annual ratio of the detection of lung cancer was 45/100, 000 in the first year, however, it decreased to 38/100, 000 in the second year and to 15/100, 000 in the third year. Cancer resection was performed in 63.6%, 76.1% and 80.0% of the patients, in the first, the second and the third year, respectively. On the average, 57% of the patients who underwent cancer resection demonstrated early lung cancer. Especially, 45 of 51 patients with lung cancer detected by sputum cytology underwent tumor resection, of which 40 (89%) bore early lung cancer.
SHIRATORI, T., KANAIZUMI, T., MURATA, S., MORIMOTO, Y., VEDA, T., ISHIKAWA, H., NAKATSUZI, N., KUBO, Y., KOYA, T., TATSUMI, H. and MATSUI, T. New Additional Operation for the Prevention of the Gastric Stasis after Selective Gastric Vagotomy with Antrectomy. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 187-196 -In order to prevent postoperative gastric stasis, we devised and tested the following improvements in the selective gastric vagotomy with antrectomy. (1) The gastroduodenostomy was made so as to have an acute angle to the longitudinal axis of the remnant stomach, and (2) the downward traction being exerted on the remnant stomach by the transverse colon was eliminated by dissecting the greater omentum, and then (3) the posterior wall of the corpus on the lesser curvature side was fixed to the stump of the hepatogastric ligament, and the posterior wall of the corpus on the greater curvature side was fixed to the retroperitoneum inferior to the pancreas. By these procedures, the corpus was maintained in a position superior to the anastomosis. These operative procedures resulted in preventing the gastric stasis after the start of oral feeding. The two patients on whom this operation was performed have been followed up for 3 to 4 months since the operation, and neither of them has had any complaint of gastric stasis, such as anorexia or a feeling of heaviness of the stomach.
OKABE, M., MATSUSHIMA, S., FUKUHARA, T., TANAKA, M., SAKURADA, K., KAKINUMA, M., MAEKAWA, I. and MIYAZAKI, T. Non-T, Non-B Acute Lymphocytic Leukemias: Cellular Origin Based on Molecular Analyses of Immunoglobulin and T-Cell α- and β-Chain Receptor Gene Rearrangements. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 197-207 - Fifteen non-T, non-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cases were investigated for determining cellular origin based on molecular (immunoglobulin and T-cell α-receptor (TcRα) and T-cell β-receptor (TCRβ) genes) and immunophenotypical analyses. As defined by monoclonal antibodies, they were classified into 2 groups; 12 cases as common ALL antigen (CALLA)-positive ALL and 3 cases as CALLA-negative ALL. Southern blot analysis revealed that 11 CALLA-positive ALL cases contained rearranged JH gene and 2 of them contained rearranged Jx genes, similar to recent views that most CALLA-positive leukemic cells are neoplastic B-cell precursors. One CALLA-positive ALL case, whose leukemic cells were also Leu-1 positive, showed no rearrangement of JH and TcRβ genes. On the other hand, non-T, non-B CALLA-negative ALL, so called null ALL, consisted of heterogenous groups with regard to lymphocyte differentiation and lineage; one out of 3 null ALL cases may be truely undifferentiated as shown neither JH nor TcRβ gene rearrangement, but other 2 cases showed either JH or TcRβ gene rearrangement. Dual rearrangements of Ig and TcRβ genes occur frequently in 3 out of 15 non-T, non-B ALL cases, but all cases of bigenotype showed no doubly marked profile and retained a completely fidelous immunophenotypic pattern. We further investigated the possibility that analysis of TcRα gene may be useful for determining cellular origin of non-T, non-B ALL leukemic cells.
SENBA, M. and ITAKURA, H. A Staining Method for Easy Detection ofEosinophilic Globules in Kaposi's Sarcoma. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1987, 152 (2), 209-210-Eosinophilic globules provide an important clue for diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). These globules were stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), periodic acid Schiff reagent after diastase digestion, phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH) and autofluorescence under ultraviolet illumination. By these methods, however, eosinophilic globules in KS could not be readily identified. Therefore, we developed a new procedure for rapid identification of eosinophilic globules in KS tissues.