The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 51 , Issue 3-4
Showing 1-36 articles out of 36 articles from the selected issue
  • Koiti Motokawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 207-214
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The electrical excitability of the human eye was measured at varying intervals after the end of an illumination two seconds in duration by means of a rheobasic constant current, and the differences between the excitabilities with and without the preceding illumination were plotted as ordinates against time intervals between the end of illumination and electrical stimula-tion as abscissas. The illumination was restricted to the fovea centralis.
    1. The curve so obtained has a single maximum in normal trichromats, but three maxima in deuteranomalous subjects when white light is used for illumination. The height of each maximum depends greatly upon intensities of illumination, but the crest time is entirely independent of intensities. The appearance of the three maxima is so interpreted that one of the three component-processes is too weak for such complete fusion as is found at normal subjects.
    2. In some normal trichromats the three maxima appear in the excitability curve for a monochromatic light of some adequate wave-length. It was found that bluish green light is adequate for this purpose. Red light gives rise to a excitability curve with a single maximum, the crest time of which is about 1 second. The curve for blue light is also mono-phasic, the crest time being about 3 seconds. Violet light causes two maxima, one of which has the same crest time as the curve for red light, and the other of which corresponds to the maximum for blue light.
    3. When electrical threshold is determined in the presence of a weak green light after an illumination with white light, the three maxima appear in normal subjects like in deuteranomalous persons. This is due to an in-hibitory effect of the green light upon one of the three component-processes.
    All above findings provide physiological evidence of the three com-ponents-theory of Young-Helmholtz.
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  • Motoyuki Utusi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 215-217
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Akira Sato, Nobuo Kaiho
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 218
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Motoyuki Utusi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 219-221
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Akira Sato
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 222
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Kozo Huzi
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 223-229
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masahiko Kuroya, Nakao Ishida, Shina Kobayashi, Jiro Konno, Reiko Chid ...
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 230
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Keigo Kato
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 231-238
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tatuo Saito, Isamu Kaito, Motoji Sawada
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 239-246
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Dilution test:
    No remarkable difference between normal individuals and the patients of Type I was observed. The amount of urine output was approximately 1000 c. c., the specific gravity gradually decreased and the body weight was invariable or slightly lost.
    On the contrary, in Type II there were no striking increase of output and fall of specific gravity except 2 cases.
    The results of the above experiment correspond to that of Klein, 16) Gerbi19) and Ralli.20)
    Moreover, it is interesting that the same results were obtained in the experiment performed without giving water; and it is assumed that in severe cases of diabetes the water intake has no influence upon the urine output and the fluid taken is stored in the body.
    After recovery from diabetic symptoms by the suitable treatment, the urine output increased in every case, especially remarkable in severe cases notwithstanding the total daily amount becoming small, although we found no great difference in comparison with the results before the treatment when there was no recovery.
    Concentration test:
    In every case the rise of specific gravity was observed, while in Type II it is so high previously as a rule that it was not so marked.
    The amount of urine is comparatively small in Type I.
    As Kailhack21) described, we found, out a close relation between the amount of urine output and urine sugar, that is, when the former was large the latter was simillarly large and we noticed the decrease of the former together with that of the latter after recovery with the diabetic treatment.
    Discussion:
    As many authors stated, no established theory on the disturbance of water metabolism has been found.
    They thought to find out the causal meaning in the disturbances of kidney function caused by glycosuria, 22) in diabetic aeidosis, 3)6) in the failure of the intermediary water metabolism in the tissues, 15) in saline action, 23) in the insufficiency of nutrition of capillary wall due to the disturbance of carbohydrate assimilating process7) and in hypophysis.24)
    In severe stage of diabetes, there occurs the profound dehydration from the excessive loss of water, and it is easily assumed that in the dilution test done under this condition the administrated water is stored in the body, and that by the administration of bread this stored fluid is excreted in a large quantity of urine which goes in parallel with the rise of blood sugar and the increase of urine sugar.
    After all, severe diabetic patients have a tendency to store the fluid in the body cells preparing for excretion of an increased urine sugar following hyperglycemia.
    If they take the food which causes hyperglycemia without taking the water sufficiently, the occurence of dehydration, clinically thirst and desiccation of the skin are observed.
    On the contrary if they take the water sufficiently and the food res-trictedly, the fluid is stored and clinically edema occurs.
    In severe diabetic cases, as Nakagawa9) reported, it is easily under-stood that we see frequently the occurence of edema in such cases as the restricted diet is given; while Stolte8) said diabetic edema is due to cachexia caused by the excessive limitted diet, therefore, the food must be given sufficiently; although this is different from our opinion theoretically, we can easily endorse it.
    Further, it is understood from these facts that it is seldom to see dia-betic edema under the dietary management of our Clinic, containing 250-350 grins. of carbohydrate, 80-100 grins. of protein, 30-40 grms. of fat and about 1600-2200 calories.
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  • Isamu Kaito
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 247-260
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Isamu Kaito
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 261-272
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Yoshio Shikinami, Motoi Takeda, Tatsuji Akimoto
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 273-274
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Vi coli was found in various kinds of disease, viz. ekiri, endometritis, and gangrenous and non-gangrenous appendicitis, but rather infrequently. The coli bacilli, isolated from healthy person, and those suffered from the acute enteritis, pyelitis or cystitis, and coli sepsis had no Vi-antigen. It seems to be justified to say some significance of Vi coli upon the severeness of illness. Our Vi coli presented the V-W change about 1 1 /2 year after the isolation.
    The present work was presented, before the Tohoku Medical Meeting, Oct. 1946.
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  • Tamazi Satoh
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 275-279
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shina Kobayashi, Jiro Sato, Nakao Ishida
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 280
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tamazi Satoh
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 281-283
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Susumu Iijima
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 284
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Syoiti Yamagata
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 285-290
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The experiments present a new micromethod which makes it possible to perform the accurate estimation of glycogen in the 0.1 c. c. of blood sample.
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  • Syoiti Yamagata, Tomitada Chida
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 291-295
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    From our experiments it can be concluded that part of glycogen in the liver pours into the blood as such, if the ability of the liver to keep glycogen is enfeebled, because the mobilization between glycogen and sugar takes place more rapidly and intensely than usual.
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  • Yoshio Yoshida
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 296
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Kiyota Oh-Uti
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 297-304
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Carbohydrates and a glycidamin which are group-specific were isolated from gastric cancers.
    2. The above group carbohydrates resemble the corresponding carbo-hydrates from normal human gastric mucosa in qualitative as well as quantitative chemical composition, but differ from these regarding the strength of optical rotation and anti-hemoagglutinative potency. The writer ascribed the discrepancies to the “immaturity” of those substances.
    3. The glycidamin from gastric cancers also showed a relationship like above with the corresponding glycidamin from the normal human gastric mucosa.
    4. Mucoitin was not proved present in most of the cancer fractions, that are conceivable to contain it if present.
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  • Hirosi Tiba
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 305-307
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. N. A. A. C.'s from A and B gastric juice were found identical with each other.
    2. It is composed of glucosamine, galactose and sulfuric and acetic acid in molecular ratios of nearly 10:15:2:10.
    3. It has the rotation [α]D of -36_??_-37°.
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  • Takeshi Kurobane, Nobuaki Sasano
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 308
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Hirosi Tiba
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 309-318
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Human O gastric juice (of secretors) contains two kinds of polysac-charide, one O group specific and the other non-group-specific.
    2. The group-specific carbohydrate above has a composition similar to that of the corresponding carbohydrates in the gastric juice from persons (secretors) belonging to A and B groups, i.e., it is made up of glucosamine, acetic acid, galactose and sulfuric acid in the molecular ratios of 1:1: 1:0.1. The proportional molecular number of acetic acid ought to be larger than 1 judging from the sequel of the direct test of Osaki and Turumi, but from analysis the equivalent excess looks minute.
    3. The O-specific carbohydrate resembles the group carbohydrate from B gastric juice in optical rotation.
    4. The O-group carbohydrate is digestible as readily as the B-group carbohydrate by the snail enzyme but more difficultly than the A group carbohydrate.
    5. The O-specific carbohydrate not only inhibits the precipitation of O-saliva (from a secretor) by anti-O immune goat serum and gives pre-cipitin reaction with the immune serum but also inhibits the agglutination of O-erythrocytes by this serum adsorbed with Ae erythrocytes. In these respects, the A and B carbohydrates were similar to the O.
    6. N. A. A. C. (the glacial acetic acid-insoluble carbohydrate) in the O gastric juice is regarded identical with the N. A. A. C.'s in A and B gastric juice, which have been proved to be same for their part.
    7. Besides the mentioned carbohydrates a glycidamin in the O gastric juice was separated in a phosphorus-free state. Its molecule contains a carbohydrate like N. A. A. C.
    8. Neither the alcoholic deposit of the O gastric juice, with which fractionation was started, nor the separated substances gave the reaction of hexuronic acid.
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  • Nobour Hiyama
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 319-326
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Noboru Hiyama
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 327-334
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Eiji Miyakawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 335-342
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masao Oikawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 343-350
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masasiroh Aikawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 351-354
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masasiroh Aikawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 355-358
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shoichiro Ohara
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 359-365
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Berkson7) and others observed that when nicotine was applied, the intestinal activity became vigorous, but its action currents disappeared. In my experiments the disappearance of action currents could not be recognized, but the electrical records showed the changes with very small waves a few minutes after the application. And they described that when epinephrine was used the activity of intestine stopped at once, but the electrical wave was hardly influenced. In my experiments it was in-fluenced clearly in both cases of an intact intestine and excised one. They stated moreover that the effects obtained with atropine were similar to those by adrenaline reported above. In my case this fact was observed in an intact intestine, but when the excised one was used, the electrical records showed the peculiar wave, which was described above already.
    Further, it has been recognized that when the intestinal movements are more vigorous by the effects of some drugs e.g. pilocarpine, vagostigmin, acetylcholine or histamine, the electrical wave becomes greater in its period and amplitude and when the movements are inhibitted, it becomes smaller. It was true in case of adrenaline, as was mentioned above.
    Namely in my experiments it has been shown that two responses, which are potential changes and mechanical ones, react with some drugs differently, and at the physiological conditions or by means of some drugs the period and the amplitude of the electrical curve change generally in parallel with the variation of the intestinal activity. However, the degree of variations which two responses demonstrate differs from each other. So there is probably included in the electrical curve an important factor which may be distinguished from the action currents made by musclar activity. Accordingly it will be assumed that the intestinal action currents contain two elements; that is, the action currents which have their origin in the intrinsic nervous system or in the chemical changes in the muscle, and which are made by the intestinal activity.
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  • Kojiro Matsuda, Hidesuke Tomono
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 366
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masashiroh Aikawa
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 367-377
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Masataka Kato, Hisao Sato
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 378
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Tosisada Mita, Kazuo Hironaka, Izumi Koike
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 379-388
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Changes in electrical excitability of the dark-adapted eye caused by a brief illumination with white light were measured under various conditions of intensity and duration of illumination.
    (1) It was confirmed that a flash of light was followed by an electrical refractory phase and an electrical supernormal phase successively, both extrema of refractoriness and of supernormality being reached in about 0.05'' and about 2'' after the end of illumination respectively.
    (2) The refractory period was found to be strikingly dependent on duration of illumination but far less on its intensity.
    (3) It was found that there exists a quantitative relation between refractoriness and supernormality.
    (4) It was pointed out that an increase in intensity does not always act in the same sense as an increase in duration of illumination.
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  • Shinichiro Ohinata
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 389-396
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The effect of various cations on the action current of frog's skin was investigated. Solutions to be tested were applied to the inner surface of skin. The stimulus used was a single maximum induction shock.
    1. The magnitude of the action current is usually decreased when Ringer is substituted for Ringer containing a great amount of alkalimetal-and alkali earth metal ions. The order of reducing effects of ions follows Hofineister's lyotropic series:
    K.>NH.4>Li.>Na..
    The series for alkali earth metal ions is as follows:
    Al ...>Ba..>Mg..>Ca...
    2. Ca.. increases the action current above normal in adequate con-centration.
    3. Antagonistic action can be demonstrated not only between K. and bivalent cations such as Ca.. and Mg.. but also between two kinds of monovalent cations such as K. and Li..
    4. The action current is scarcely affected by changing pH of the medium from 4.3 to 8.2.
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  • Shinichiro Ohinata
    1949 Volume 51 Issue 3-4 Pages 397-404
    Published: December 25, 1949
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Effects of various pharmaca such as atropine, adrenalin, acetylcholine etc. on action currents of frog's skin were investigated in order to contribute something to the problem of chemical transmission at endings of secretory nerve of the skin.
    1. Atropine either abolishes or depresses action currents in higher concentrations than 0.0001%.
    2. Adrenalin acts in the same gray, and the critical concentnations. is about 0.10001%.
    3. Acetylcholine depresses action currents in higher concentrations such as above 0.1%. but increases them above normal in middle and lower concentrations.
    4. Pilocarpinc acts in the same way as acetylcholine. The only difference consists in that its action is not inhibited by 0.01% atropine, while acetylcholine is entirely ineffective at preparations paralysed by 0.01% atropine.
    5. Though adrenalin is able to abolish action currents, it is unable to inhibit the increasing action of acetyicholine and pilocarpine.
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