The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 60 , Issue 3-4
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Takashi Yamaguchi
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 209-215
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Osamu Miura, Toshio Nakajima, Ryusuke Mizumoto
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 217-228
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Michio Fujii
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 229-235
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Fassen wir unsere Versuchsergebnisse kurz zusammen, so ergibt sich
    1. Bei der “positiven” Aufladung des Menschen zeigen Natrium und Calcium im Blutserum eine Verminderung, Kalium dagegen eine Vermehrung. Bei der “negativen” Aufladung zeitigen Natrium und Calcium eine Zunahme, Kalium jedoch eine Abnahme. In dieser Hinsicht zeigen die antagonistisch wirksamen Elemente auch bei der elektrischen Aufladung gerade das umgekehrte Verhältnis.
    2. Auch bei der “positiven” Aufladung des Blutserums in vitro zeigen Natrium und Calcium in meisten Fällen eine Verminderung, Kalium hingegen eine Vermehrung. Bei der “negativen” Aufladung des Blutserums ist im Gegensatz zur Abnahme des Kalium eine wenn auch nicht sehr häufige Zunahme von Natrium und Calcium zu beobachten.
    3. Der Aufladungseffekt ist bei der Aufladung der Versuchspersonen sehr signifikant und in allen Fällen ausnahmslos immer reproduzierbar.
    4. Dieser Erfolg tritt aber nur solange auf, als elektrisch aufgeladen ist.
    Es lässt sich daher mit Recht sagen, dass drei Elemente im Blutserum, d.h. Natrium, Kalium und Calcium, bei der elektrischen Aufladung mehr oder weniger deutlich nach einer bestimmten “Regel” verschoben sind.
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  • Yoshio Saito
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 237-244
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Yoshio Saito
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 245-249
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Yoshio Saito
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 251-256
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Nobuo Kanno, Kiyosi Kimura, Yosizi Mugikura
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 257-269
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. High-molecular substances (a neutral carbohydrate, a protein precipitable at pH 4.2 (Protein I), a mixture of proteins soluble in glacial acetic acid (Protein II), a mixture of nucleic acids (PNA and DNA) and an itinsulfuric acid) were separated from placentas. Examined physically and chemically, the preparations proved to be mostly contaminated more or less.
    2. Schultz-Dale assay did not afford a proof of the presence in the sera of pregnancy-toxemic women of antibodies of those components.
    3. Precipitin test suggested the presence of antibodies of the products in some of the sera of normal-pregnant women and more of the sera of the pregnancy-toxemic.
    4. The products gave rise to no spasm in the retinal arterioles nor change of intravascular pressure of the carotic artery nor albuminuria in pregnant rabbits, but all of them excepting Protein II caused premature delivery.
    5. Pregnant rabbits underwent pathological lesions of liver and kidney resembling those in pregnancy toxemia by intravenous injection of the preparations, the degree of change depending on the preparation, although Rössle's characteristic allergic changes were not found in those tissues.
    6. Proteins I and II proved Schwartzman-active.
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  • Nobuo Kanno
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 271-278
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shigeaki Yamamoto, Toshiaki Konno, Reiji Momma
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 279-281
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. As the results of our study on the brain stems of a pigeon, a japanese bush warbler, a baby crow, a gull, an owl and a cock, we have found that their abducens nuclei were situated entirely dorsally, in a position not much different from those in mammalia.
    2. With the exception of an owl, the abducens nucleus is located more caudally than the facial nucleus.
    3. The abducens root is also found in a more caudal position than the facial root, with the same exception of the owl.
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  • Osamu Miura, Shigeo Kusunoki
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 283-288
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Ko Ohi
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 289-296
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The nerve cells in the stomach in white rat show a stage of development so low that they cannot be divided into any of Dogiel's two types of cells. But, as they are multipolar, they are probably of sympathetic nature.
    It is impossible to distinguish histologically sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres as well as long processes of the nerve cells in stomach wall especially at their peripheral parts, because they are in mutual anastomosis at many points. The termination of these vegetative fibres is represented by the terminalreticulum (Stöhr). So the terminal-reticulum must be sympathetic and parasympathetic at the same time. The manner of its nerve supply of the tissue cells is effected mostly by contact.
    Sensory nerve fibres and their terminations were found also in the stomach in white rat as in the human stomach (Sato). This fact shows evidently that the transmission of sensory stimuli is done also in the stomach through the cerebrospinal sensory nerve fibres.
    The sensory fibres are very easily distinguishable histologically from vegetative fibres. Their number is very small, as is the case in human stomach (Sto).
    The sensory terminations may be divided into simple branched, snake-like and unbranched terminations. There were found no simple glomerular terminations as seen in man. It shows that the differentiation of the sensory terminations is in white rat inferior to that in man.
    The simple branched terminations are mainly found in the inner muscular layer and are characterized by bifurcated branches of the stem fibre which show change of thickness, run a winding course and terminate sharply or bluntly. The snake-like termination is generally found in tela submucosa and is represented by a comparatively thin, scarcely branched fibre terminating freely after running a specific snake-like course. Unbranched terminations are the simplest of sensory terminations, where fine fibres terminate sharply or bluntly after light meandering, and are mainly found between the tela submucosa and the lamina muscularis mucosae.
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  • Koh Ohi
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 297-306
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    The intramural nerve cells in the duodenum are very low in development as those in the stomach, 5) by white rats, so that they cannot be classified into the two kinds of Dogiel's Type I and Type II cells. But the fact that they are multipolar seems to indicate that they are sympapathetic. As the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres as well as the peripheral parts of the long nerve processes of the nerve cells in the walls are in anastomosis with each other, they cannot be distinguished histologically. The end apparatus of these vegetative nerve fibres is represented by the Stöhr's terminalreticulum, which is sympathetic and parasympathetic at the same time and stands to supply all the tissue- cells by contact.
    In the duodenal walls of white rat are found sensory nerve fibres and their terminations, which presumably originate in the comparatively abundant sensory cerebro-spinal nerve fibres of the splanchnic nerves.
    The sensory endings are classified into the three types of branched endings, glomerular endings and snake-like endings. The branched endings constitute the majority and are represented as comparatively widely diffused endings found also in the tela submucosa, but principally in the lamina propria mucosae. These endings consist of rather large sized main fibres, after losing their myelin, dividing into some branches which show in places neurofibril expansions and peculiar windings, and end sharply or bluntly. In the submucosa, these endings frequently reach the duodenal glands or run into lymphatic nodes. In the propria mucosae, they run around the crypts or further into the villi and even close up to the epithelium.
    The glomerular endings are very rarely formed in the submucosa. They consist of thicker nerve fibres showing change in size and winding courses. They have some special syncytial nuclei but lack a connective tissue mantle.
    The snake-like endings consist of sensory nerve fibres of medium size, which, upon becoming unmyelinated, run in snake-like or wave-like windings for a comparatively long course and terminate sharply or bluntly. Sometimes, these endings show a partial glomerular course.
    The existence of sensory nerve terminations in the duodenum, as described in the above, shows that, here, as well as in the stomach, 5) transmission of sensory stimuli is effected by way of cerebro-spinal nerve fibres. The reason of their existence presumably consists, physiologically, in the formation of a reflex arc to promote secretion of digestive fluids, and pathologically, in the causing of peculiar duodenal pains.
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  • Mitsuo Segi, Ichiro Fukushima, Minoru Kurihara
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 307-310
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Shunsuke Utsushi
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 311-321
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    In the duodenum of fourth month human embryo, the intramural nerve cells show an infantile stage of development represented by spherical cells with a large round nucleus. In the cell bodies neurofibrils are as yet scarcely formed. Mantle cell nuclei are much smaller than the nerve cell nuclei in size and at this stage of embryonic life, are much smaller in number than those in human adults. The mitosis of these cell nuclei is considered to take place gradually in later days.
    In seventh month embryo, the nerve cells increase somewhat in size, but the majority is. still represented by spherical cells with a large round nucleus, except a minority of the cells, by which neurofibrils and a few nerve processes begin to appear, showing the formation of incipient simple multipolar cells. Mantle cell nuclei are more numerous than in fourth month embryo but far lesser than in human adult.
    The vegetative terminalreticulum is in a nearly perfect formation already in the fourth month on the embryonic life, as has been established by many researches in this laboratory, and also in my specimen of embryonic duodenum, this doctrine has been beautifully confirmed. In the seventh month embryo, the terminalreticulum is even better developed and surrounding the sundry tissue cells enter into tactile control over them. The Schwann's nuclei found in the terminalreticulum I take to be endocrinal in character, as declared by my predecessors.
    It is of interest that the opening part of the ductus choledochus of fourth and seventh month embryos is as richly provided with vegetative fibres as are the stomach and the intestines. The formation of well-developed vegetative plexus is seen in the connective tissue layer in the periphery of the choledochus, and in places, vegetative nerve cell groups, though somewhat smaller than those in Auerbach's and Meissner's plexus, are observable. The development of the nerve cells and the mantle cell nuclei is on a similar stage as in the duodenum. Numerous nerve branches are sent out from the plexus, which ramify into more minute branches and anastomose at frequent intervals. The minutest of them finally go over into vegetative terminalreticulum, which spread out widely in all the layers of the choledochus and stand in tactile control over the sundry tissue cells.
    I have succeeded in proving the existence of medullated sensory fibres and their terminations not only in the duodenum but also in the choledochus of fourth and seventh month embryos. The pains caused by pathological disturbances in the duodenum and choledochus could be thus attributed to the existence of sensory terminations in these parts.
    Large nerve bundles containing numerous sensory fibres which are presumably originated from the splanchnic nerves reach the contact area of the head of the pancreas and the duodenum and thence the major part runs to the duodenum and the rest to the pancreas and the choledochus.
    The numerous sensory fibres that reach the adventitia of the duodenum run through the outer muscle layer into the Auerbach's plexus and thence into the submucosa through the inner muscle layer to terminate in the submucosa or further in the mucous membrane. In these layers, the sensory fibres lose their myelin and branch out into rami, which, upon running winding courses with peculiar change in size, spread out widely and terminate sharply. The terminal branches sometimes reach the surroundings of the duodenal glands or the epithelium of the crypts and villi, but never penetrate into the cells of the glands and epithelium themselves. The above described sensory fibres are of course much better developed in seventh month embryo than in fourth month one.
    Many sensory nerve fibres are also seen penetrating into the plexus found in the periphery of the embryonic choledochus. These fibres run also here into the mucous membrane and end in unbranched and simple branched terminations therein. Their terminal fibres end sharply.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Nobuo Kanno, Kiyosi Kimura
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 323-330
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Water-soluble, high-molecular components (crude) were prepared from placentae and embryos.
    2. The skin reaction of the substances was examined which pointed to the fact that they are generally capable of producing a larger redness in cancer patients than in the non-cancerous. Those of embryos showed also the positive test for pregnancy.
    3. The neutral carbohydrate fraction of embryo was found to contain no glucosamine nor mannose.
    Thanks are due to the Education Department, which gave through the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches a grant for defraying the expenses of this work. H. Masamune.
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  • Sen-itiroh Hakomori
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 331-345
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Preps. I and II of the Partial Group Lipoid (active fragment of Group A human liver group lipoid), which had been described formerly in an article2)rom this institute, were investigated regarding structure.
    2. The sole ethanolamine molecule in Prep. II or one of the two ethanolamine molecules in Prep. I appears to be joined through its NH2-group with a carboxyl belonging to the amino acid grouping in which glycine has been found to bear its NH2-group in a free state.
    3. The polysaccharide was found conjugated with the NH2-group of one of the glutamyl rests in the polypeptide N-glycosidically.
    4. Arrangement of the amino acids as well as that of the mono-saccharides was discussed.
    The expenses of this work were defrayed by a grant from the Education Department through the Grant Committee for Scientific Researches. H. Masamune.
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  • Hajime Masamune, Sen-itiroh Hakomori, Osamu Masamune
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 347-352
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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  • Mitsuhisa Hayakawa, Fumio Ito
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 353-359
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Kidney, gastric mucosa or liver of rabbit has tryptase activity (hydrolysis of casein or gelatin) and its optimal reaction is near 7.8. Tryptic hydrolysis amounts are nearly constant with respect to each of these tissues throughout all the animals examined.
    2. Tryptase activity of liver or gastric mucosa is activated in the presence of dialyzed albumin solution.
    3. Tryptase activity of the gastric mucosa is found stronger than that of the liver, and ereptase activity (pepton, pH 7.8) is found stronger in the latter than in the former. Tryptase or ereptase activity of the kidney is, when compared with that of the gastric mucosa or those of the liver, exceedingly strong.
    4. By liver proteolysis, the hydrolysis of gelatin appears smaller than that of casein, and by gastric mucosa or by kidney proteolysis, the former is nearly equal to the latter.
    5. Hydrolysis of serum albumin or ovalbumin by these tissue homogenates at pH 7.8 is not recognizable.
    6. The above results are fairly consistent with those obtained with human gastric mucosa, and acceptance of the general existence in tissue cell of tryptase as a second intra-cellular proteinase other than catheptic proteinase is advocated.
    This work was carried out in part by a grant for development of scientific researches, given from the Ministry of Education. M. Hayakawa
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  • Mitsuhisa Hayakawa, Fumio Ito
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 361-366
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Tryptase of gastric mucosa, liver or kidney of rabbit is activated in the presence of dialyzed ovalbumin or serum albumin solution in similar manner, while ereptase of these tissues undergoes no activation.
    2. Tryptase of testicle, large intestine, or heart muscle is relatively apparent and undergoes albumin activation as well as above, but that of blind intestine, skin, brain, or striped muscle becomes first manifest after the activation with dialyzed albumin solution.
    3. The degree of activation is almost constant throughout all experiments regardless of kind of tissue, and almost two times increase in hydrolysis amount is observed. The activating ability of dialyzed albumin solution disappears after it has attained the equilibrium for dialysis against FeSO4 solution.
    This work was carried out in part by a Grant for Development of Scientific Researches given from the Ministry of Education. M. Hayakawa
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  • Fumio Ito
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 367-374
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    Rabbit liver proteolysis was studied, yielding the following results:
    1. Enzyme solution which is incubated at pH 8.2-8.6 at 37°C for thirty or forty minutes exhibits tryptase activity (casein, gelatin, pH 7.8) and ereptase activity (pepton, pH 7.8) but does not exhibit catheptic proteinase and catheptic peptonase activity (casein, gelatin or pepton, pH 4.5, with cystein activation).
    2. Tryptase is rather inhibited by cystein but ereptase is not.
    3. Enzyme solution which is incubated at pH 3.5 at 37°C for forty minutes exhibits only tryptase activity, and neither ereptase nor catheptase activity can be observed on it.
    4. Tryptase activity appears to increase slightly after incubation at pH 4.0-4.5 at 37°C.
    5. Enzyme solution which is incubated at pH 9.0 at 37°C for sixty minutes exhibits ereptase activity, and neither catheptase nor tryptase activity can be observed on it.
    6. Existence on rabbit liver of tryptase is definitely evidenced.
    This work was carried out by a Grant for Development of Scientific Researches given from the Ministry of Education. M. Hayakawa
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  • Hisashi Sato
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 375-386
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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    1. Streptomycin-resistant, chloramphenicol-resistant and strepto-mycin-dependent strains were isolated from a parent strain of E. coli.
    2. Total nitrogen, nucleic acid, free amino acid and viable cell number were determined in each strain at various culture stages. Strepto-mycin-resistant and chloramphenicol-resistant strains showed a tendency of increase and decrease in total nitrogen and RNA amounts approximately similar as the parent strain. On the contrary in a streptomyin dependent strain which shows a retarded growth, the total nitrogen and RNA amounts did not increase to the same rate and extent as above and it may be presumably due to the fact that the protein synthesis of the strains would not proceed so sufficiently during the culture stages.
    In concluding this paper, I wish to express gratitude to Prof. M. Kuroya for his generous guidance throughout the experiment and for reviewing the manuscript.
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  • Osamu Miura, Toshio Nakajima, Chujiro Yamamoto
    1954 Volume 60 Issue 3-4 Pages 387-400
    Published: October 25, 1954
    Released: November 28, 2008
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