Attempts were made at a simple, rapid and precise determination of calcium bilirubinate in the gallstone by means of infrared spectroscopy. The KBr-disk method was adopted for this purpose, the absorbance being calculated according to the base-line method. Of a number of absorptions characteristic of calcium bilirubinate, the 1624cm-1 band was determined to be most suitable for the key band of this compound in view of its satisfactory intensity, perfect adherence to Beer-Lambert's law and little susceptivity to interference of coexisting substances. A calibration curve was established at this wave number using authentic calcium bilirubinate, which proved to be valid also for multi-component samples simulating gallstones. The concentration of calcium bilirubinate in gallstone specimens as determined by this method fell in between analytical data obtained by two chemical methods, assuring the accuracy of this spectroscopic method.
A clinical case of hypoglycemia was reported. Hypoglycemia in this case was characterized by delayed recovery and low stationary values of blood sugar in insulin and tolbutamide tests. Since the results of glucose tolerance test in this case met precisely the diagnostic criteria of early diabetes described by Seltzer et al., a possible relation between hypoglycemia and early diabetes was discussed on the basis of laboratory examinations. The follow-up study of the case is still continued.
The effect of rhythmical contraction of the spleen on the splenic venous flow was studied. The rate of blood flow through the splenic vein was determined in dogs which maintained an almost constant systemic blood pressure before and after the rhythmical contractions was induced. Normal splenic blood flow averaged 2.77ml per minute, but increased to 3.22ml per minute on the average during the period of rhythmical contractions. This increase corresponded to 16.2% of the normal splenic blood flow. This suggests that the rhythmical fluctuation in splenic blood flow accelerates the blood flow in the portal vein.
Two patients with Hartnup disease were studied for tryptophan loading test. The increase in kynurenine and N-methylnicotinamide following the tryptophan loading was less remarkable in the Hartnup patients than in controls. On the other hand, the Hartnup patients revealed a striking elevation of indoleacetic acid and indican following the loading as compared with those in controls. Plasma levels of tryptophan following the loading indicated a lower peak in the Hartnup patients than in controls. These results suggest malabsorption of tryptophan in the intestine. The in ritro studies on uptake of tryptophan by leukocytes failed to demonstrate a specific defect in transport of tryptopha.n in a Hartnup patient.
A method has been devised for preparing thin sections of the gallstone not disturbing its original structure. This method is characterized by utilization of a resin film to protect the section from disintegration during cutting. The gallstone is embedded in paraffin and its cut surface is coated with a thin film of vinyl acetate resin by painting its solution. Using microtome, a section of desired thickness is cut. Serial sections as thin as 1-3 microns are easily prepared by repeating this painting and cutting procedure. Mounted on the slide glass, the resin-reinforced section can be immediately examined by ordinary or polarization microscope, the resin film having approximately the same refraction index as glass. Moreover, the specimen is ready for staining when it is fixed to the slide glass in such a manner that the gallstone section faces upward and the resin film downward. This simple technique is applicable to almost any kind of gallstones with a result superior to that obtained by previously proposed methods.
Incidence of abnormality in liver functions was significantly higher in patients with peptic ulcer than in the control group. It was also significantly different from that in patients with gastric cancer or gastritis. The disturbance of liver functions in peptic ulcer was usually mild to slight in degree. No definite correlation was found between liver functions and histological findings on biopsy specimens obtained from 19 randomly selected patients with peptic ulcer.
A clinical case of acquired unilateral cryptorchidism after herniotomy was described. Extensive degenerative changes were histologically observed not only in the cryptorchid testis but also in the scrotal one, and were regarded as underlying processes of sterility in the case of unilateral cryptorchidism. In experimental unilateral cryptorchidism in dogs, histologically demon-strable spermatogenesis was suppressed in both cryptorchid and scrotal testes. Oxygen consumption and respiratory quotient of the organs were enhanced, while the activity of succinic dehydrogenase was lowered. These histological and biochemical findings were more or less normalized after reposition of the cryptorchid testis into the scrotum. It was concluded that suppressed spermatogenesis in the contralateral scrotal testis in unilateral cryptorchidism was induced in some way by the degenerative changes in the cryptorchid testis.
A 2-month-old female with Wolman's disease is presented as the first case of this illness in Japan. Two siblings of the patient had succumbed probably to the same disease. Histochemical examination revealed that numerous foamy cells containing cholesterol and neutral fat appeared in the reticuloendothelial system. Electron-microscopic observation revealed large droplets of fat in the cytoplasm of the foamy cells. Lipid analysis of the liver and spleen showed an abnormal accumulation of cholesterol (mainly esterified form) and triglycerides. On the determination of fatty acid moieties in cholesterol ester and triglycerides obtain-ed from the spleen linoleic acid could not be found. Infra-red spectrum of the cholesterol ester obtained from the spleen of our patient showed a close similarity to that of authentic cholesterol palmitate.
Adrenocortical stimulation by glycyrrhizin in male rats of Wistar-strain was confirmed by histometrical and enzyme-histochemical methods, and the effect was compared with that of ACTH. Severe cortical atrophy was induced by dexamethasone administration in a dose of 5mg/kg body weight once daily for 2 weeks. The inhibitory effect of simultaneous administration of glycyrrhizin on the dexamethasone-induced atrophy was less evident than that of ACTH so far as adrenal weight and histometrical observations were concerned. Cortical cell atrophy detectable in animals with 0.25mg/kg of dexamethasone once daily for 2 weeks was considerably inhibited by simultaneous ACTH administra-tion, and the histochemical activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was reduced. The inhibition was less conspicuous with glycyrrhizin. The histochemical activity of alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase in the capillary wall in the fascicular and reticular zones was markedly accelerated with glycyr-rhizin and very slightly with ACTH. These histochemical findings essentially conformed to the pattern in the normal animals which were treated with glycyrrhizin or ACTH. It was suggested that the stimulant effect of glycyrrhizin on the adrenocortical cell which resulted in an inhibition of the dexamethasone-induced atrophy is induced through the cortical capillary wall including the adrenal reticuloendothelial cell.