Local responses were obtained from human retina, separating cone from rod components. Instead of using pencil of light, parallel beam of red light was allowed to enter the eye through fully dilated pupil. The optical system of the eye focused the beam upon the retina, creating local retinal stimulation to an area approximately 0.15mm in diameter. The beam of light was directed to the foveal or peripheral region of the retina, thus recording cone or rod component in the ERG. The dominating ERG component possessing amplitude high enough to be measured in single response curves was recorded by an ink-writing encephalograph.
Forty-three cases of cervicovestibular syndrome were treated by perivascular sympathectomy at the proximal part of the vertebral artery. These cases were divided into P (peripheral) and C (central) groups by the positioning nystagmus test (Dix and Hallpike 1952) and self-recording cupulometry (Hozawa and Sasaki 1968). Group P could be cured of vertiginous attacks by operating on the affected side. However, in group C a sympathectomy of both sides was required to prevent recurrence of the attacks. From the results and findings of this operation, it was thought that the vasomotor reflex had a close connection with the vertiginous attacks and that the effectiveness of this operation was due to the blocking of the efferent impulses which caused the vasospasms.
In the toad carotid nerve the fiber components and their physiological role were studied. In addition the fiber composition was examined by light and electron microscopy. The carotid nerve consisted of 4 groups of fibers originated from the vagus group and the sympathetic: 1) slowly conducted fibers taking origin in V1-root, 2) rapidly conducted fibers from V2-root, 3) slowly conducted fibers derived from V2-root, and 4) sympathetic fibers. Fibers of V1-root origin were chemosensory. They conveyed impulses at the rate of about 0.3m/sec, suggesting that they were non-medullated. Rapidly conducted fibers derived from V2-root transferred baro-sensory impulses at the rate between 1m/see and 7m/sec, suggesting that they were medullated. They were rapid adapting and some of them made synapses in the jugular ganglion. In respect to slow V2-root fibers it was supposed that they were non-medullated and efferent nerve fibers to the chemoreceptor cell. Sympathetic fibers were derived from SIII-SV, mainly from SIV On their function it was discussed that they may be vasoconstrictors to the vasculature of the carotid labyrinth in the major part and partly inhibitory fibers to the chemoreceptor cell. On the anatomical observation the carotid nerve consisted of many non-medullated fibers and a small number of medullated fibers in diameter of 2-4μ.
Using 9 toads, the sympathetic nerve trunk was cut near the jugular ganglion. In more than a half of efferent nerve endings on the chemoreceptor cells, morphological changes, which were considered to be signs of degeneration, occurred after the surgery. The most suggestive evidence was that massed vesicles or numerous neurofilaments were present in the nerve endings. Seven days after the excision, many synaptic vesicles in various size were clumped, and a gross distintegration of nerve ending was observed. Mitochondria were swollen and sometimes ruptured. Fourteen days after, morphological changes in the nerve endings were more prominent. Nerve endings were filled with numerous neurofilaments and there were a few synaptic vesicles, but no mitochondria. In some nerve endings, a partial retraction of both pre- and postsynaptic membranes was observed. Occasionally socalled cytolysome was present in the nerve ending.
The candidates for circulatory mediators are evaluated in venous effluent from mucles. In chemical analyses experiments the muscle preparation has been perfused by a pump with arterial blood at a constant flow rate. During isotonic contractions produced by brief tetanic stimulation every 2 seconds or by twitch stimulation at 2 per second, venous potassium, inorganic phosphate, osmolarity and pCO2 increase, and pH and pO2 decrease. Among these factors, however, vascular resistance correlates to only venous potassium concentration (P<0.05) and pO2 (P<0.001). There is also a close inverse relationship between venous potassium and pO2 (P<0.001). At the beginning of reactive hyperemia after 2-min ischemia, only venous pO2 reduces maximally and recovers in parallel with the course of the hyperemia. Venous potassium slightly decreases during reactive hyperemia. In bioassay experiments the muscle and the kidney preparation have been supplied with donor's arterial blood through two separate pumps at constant flow rates. A part of venous effluent from muscles has been admixed to renal arterial blood by a third pump. Exercise and reactive hyperemias induce renal vasoconstriction in 5 out of 7 cases, which indicates release of adenosine and/or AMP. In conclusion, released potassium, local hypoxia, and adenosine and/or AMP contribute to exercise hyperemia. For reactive hyperemia the latter two factors seem to be responsible. After ischemic contraction adenosine and/or AMP may play a major role.
The case of a 31-year-old farmer with primary malignant tumor of the left adrenal cortex, causing pure primary hypermineralocorticism, is reported. The clinical picture consisted of intermittent tetany, periodic muscular weakness, polyuria and polydipsia, hypertension, and edema. This seems to be only the second case of pure hypermineralocorticism caused by adrenocortical carcinoma. Removal of the primary tumor resulted in a complete remission lasting for fourteen years. Thereafter, similar symptoms recurred but disappeared with the removal of the recurrent tumor. The content of aldosterone and cortisol per gram of tissue in the recurrent tumor was very low in comparison with that in the usual adrenocortical adenoma of primary aldosteronism. This case is unique in the following two points; pure mineralocorticoid excess caused by adrenocor-tical carcinoma and the long duration of 14 years for the recurrence after the first surgery.
New methods of electrical recording of facial weakness were proposed which provides means of quantitative estimation of facial weakness. Graphic presentation of the dynamic aspects of facial weakness was made possible by recording of interlabial pressure through a pressure transducer during whistle action, recording of resistance changes between two electrodes produced by wrinkle and smile actions, and by recording of blinking speed with an electronystagmography. These tests are simple, quantitative, and applicable to patients without discomfort. Differences between healthy and affected sides in these records provide reliable information on the effect of treatment. A simultaneous recording of these graphs is valuable to demonstrate associated movements.
Clinicopathological investigations were made about the mode of the onset and progress of diabetic glomerulosclerosis; 206 renal biopsies were done on randomly selected 191 patients with various degrees of diabetic states. On 11 diabetics from whom renal biopsy specimens sufficient for histological examination could be obtained twice or three times, a prospective study was carried out by correlating morphological with clinical features during the periods of biopsies. The onset of diabetic glomerulosclerosis was not parallel with the progress; juvenile diabetics usually showed a lower incidence of diabetic glomerulosclerosis than adult-onset diabetics, whereas the progress of the disease was slower in adult-onset diabetics than in juvenile ones in whom diabetic renal changes strikingly increased along with prolongation of diabetes. Diabetic glomerulosclerosis, at least in overt diabetes, is essentially irreversible in its nature, and the histological changes are closely correlated not only with blood sugar, but also with serum lipids and blood pressure levels. More or less remarkable discrepancy between the grade of morphological changes and clinical features is recognized, when the renal lesions are not so advanced, The prognosis of diabetic glomerulosclerosis depends necessarily on both clinical and morphological aspects, and repeated renal biopsies may serve to offer valuable information from the histopathological point.