NAKAMURA, Y., TAKAHASHI, Y., YAMAGUCHI, S., OMIYA, S., ORII, T., YARA, A. and GUSHIKEN, M. Severe Infantile Sialidosis-The Characteristics of OligosaccharidesIsolated from the Urine and the Abdominal Ascites. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 407-415-A female infant presenting congenital ascites, hepatosplenomegaly, coarse face, and delayed mental and physical development is described. Oligosaccharides in the urine and the abdominal ascites of this patient were investigated by Bio-Gel column chromatography. The level of urinary oligosaccharides excreted (nmol/mg creatinine) by the patient was 25.8 times the levels of the controls. The oligosaccharides in the urine and the ascites were composed almost entirely of sialyl oligosaccharides. The structures of urinary oligosaccharides were the same as those of oligosaccharides in the ascites. The ratio of high molecular weight sialyl oligosaccharides with repeating structures to low molecular weight sialyl oligosaccharides was higher in the ascites than in the urine.
UEHARA, S., AKAI, Y., TAKEYAMA, Y., TAKABAYASHI, T., OKAMURA, K. and YAJIMA, A. Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 9 in Prenatal Diagnosis andInfertility. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 417-427-In order to evaluate the relation between pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 (inv(9)) and clinical problems, the characteristics of inv(9) were investigated on the basis of chromosomal analyses of fetuses and infertile couples. The incidence of such inversion in fetuses with parents having an offspring who suffered from various clinical problems was significantly higher than the basic incidence obtained in fetuses karyotyped by reason of advanced maternal age. In the chromosomal examination of the parents whose fetuses were diagnosed as inv(9), it was revealed that either parent might be the carrier. Furthermore, in the inv(9) carrying fetuses, the number of females was significantly greater than that of males. Analysis of infertile couples revealed that the incidence of such inversion in males was significantly higher than the basic incidence mentioned above. Moreover, infertile couples with an inv(9) carrier showed a significantly higher incidence of intrauterine fetal death, compared with infertile couples with a translocation carrier or those in which the etiology was unknown. These results indicate that inv(9) may often cause clinical problems in offspring of the carrier and infertility with unknown mechanisms related to sex.
YAGI, A., ICHIKAWA, S., SAKAMAKI, T., ONO, Z., SATO, K., NAKAMURA, T. and MURATA, K. Role of Norepinephrine in the Lack of Reflex Tachycardia afterAngiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Treatment. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 429-437-Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors decrease blood pressure without causing reflex tachycardia in hypertensives, but do not always do so in normotensives. To investigate this phenomenon, hemodynamic changes in normotensive rabbits receiving a subpressor dose of norepinephrine were studied following captopril or diltiazem treatment. We also investigated the effect of captopril on baroreceptor reflex in relation to norepinephrine infusion; the baroreflex sensitivity was determined by the relationship between mean arterial pressure and pulse interval receiving graded doses of phenylephrine. Captopril infusion decreased mean arterial pressure and pulse interval from 84±4 to 74±5 mmHg and 244±7.4 to 216±7.6msec, respectively. In contrast, in rabbits receiving a norepinephrine infusion captopril lowered mean arterial pressure to the same extent (92±5 to 76±3mmHg, p<0.05) without producing reflex tachycardia. When diltiazem was administered, reflex tachycardia occurred in rabbits both with and without a norepinephrine infusion. There was no difference in the baroreflex sensitivity between rabbits receiving norepinephrine with and without captopril treatment. However, the baroreflex curve showed a slight shift to lower pressures after norepinephrine infusion in the rabbits receiving captopril. These results suggest that elevating circulating norepinephrine might be involved in preventing reflex tachycardia after captopril.
NAITO, K., TAMAHASHI, N., CHIBA, T., KANEDA, K., OKUDA, M., ENDO, K., YOSHINAGA, K. and TAKAHASHI, T. The Microvasculature of the Human BoneMarrow Correlated with the Distribution of Hematopoietic Cells. A Computer-Assisted Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Study. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 439-450-Surgical specimens of ordinary bone marrow from eight patients were submitted to computer-assisted three-dimensional reconstruction from resin-embedded, semi-thin serial sections. This was undertaken with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of hematopoietic microenvironment by establishing the basic architecture of the bone marrow, particularly the microvasculature and its relation to the hematopoietic cell series. The basic vascular structure was found to consist of mutually intertwining sinuses and hematopoietic cords (or compartments), the latter with an arteriole running along the axis. This allowed to define the unitary structure of the bone marrow as a hematopoietic cord with a central arteriole and surrounded by sinuses. Here granulopoietic cells were distributed mostly along the wall of the central arteriole. Erythropoietic cells, located mainly around the sinus wall, proved to be forming a continuous network of cord instead of separate “islands” as usually assumed, justifying a designation of “erythroblastic cords”. Megakaryocytes were positioned in close vicinity to the sinus wall. These findings appear not only to be helpful in analyzing factors involved in the in vivo hematopoietis of man, but also to visualize the importance of structural studies of bone marrow.
SOFIKITIS, N., MIYAGAWA, I., ZAVOS, P.M., INAGA, S., IINO, A., TODA, T., HARADA, T., MIO, Y. and TERAKAWA, N. Acrosin Profiles of Human SpermatozoaRecovered from the New Sperm PrepTMII Filtration Column. Tohoku J. Exp.Med., 1992, 166 (4), 451-457-Twenty semen samples were collected and two aliquots of 1.5ml were prepared from each sample. One sample of each pair (fraction-one) was used for evaluation of semen parameters and total acrosin activity of spermatozoa. The other sample of each pair (fraction-two) was mixed with an equal volume of Ham's F-10 medium and filtered through the Sperm PrepTMII. At the end of the filtration, the filtrate was pooled, sperm parameters were evaluated and total acrosin activity was assessed. Percentage of normal spermatozoa, sperm motility, and total acrosin activity of spermatozoa were significantly higher in the postfiltered fraction-two than in the fresh fraction-one. Considering the great importance of acrosin for fertilization, it is suggested that Sperm PrepTMII filtration method may be beneficial in preparing spermatozoa from infertile men with low acrosin profiles for assisted reproduction programs. Further studies will be necessary, however, in order to confirm this, since the present study concerned men with known fertility.
FUKAO, A., HISAMICHI, S., KOMATSU, S., SHIMIZU, H., SATOH, H., NAKATSUKA, H., WATANABE, T., FUJISAKU, S., ICHINOWATARI, Y., KURODA, S., IDA, Y., SUDA, S., KATO, K. and IKEDA, M. Comparison of Characteristics between Frequent Participantsand Non-Participants in Screening Program for Stomach Cancer. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 459-469-To clarify the differences in characteristics between participants and non-participants in the screening program for stomach cancer, life-style and medical histories were compared among 20, 169 subjects who lived in an urban area (Sendai) and a rural area (Wakuya and Tajiri) in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. All subjects were classified into three groups according to the frequency of participation in the screening program during the last 5 years; i.e., frequent participating group (FPG) for 4 or 5 times, reference group (RG) for 1-3 times and non-participating group (NPG) for 0 times. Subjects in the FPG consumed more milk and green-yellow vegetable whereas those in the NPG consumed less these foods. The age-adjusted proportions of present smokers were higher in the NPG but lower in the FPG significantly. The proportions of subjects who had parental histories of all cancers and stomach cancer and past history of gastro-duodenal ulcer were higher in the FPG and lower in the NPG. To control influences among the variables a stepwise multiple regression analysis was done, and it revealed that smoking and parental history of cancers were strong predictors to explain the frequency of participation.
WATANABE, H. and TASHIRO, K. Brunnstrom Stages and Wallerian Degenerations:A Study Using MRI. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 471-473-We studied the relationship between the Brunnstrom stages obtained after rehabilitations and Wallerian degenerations detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty-nine hemiplegic patients were retrospectively studied. The patients were grouped into a low stage group (30 patients) demonstrating Brunnstrom stages I-IV and a high stage group (19 patients) demonstrating stages V -VI. MRI detected Wallerian degenerations as changes of signal intensity in corticospinal tracts on T2-weighted images. The signals were hypointense or hyperintense compared to the normal side according to the intervals between the MRI examinations and the ictuses. MRI showed Wallerian degenerations in 27 of 30 patients in the low stage group and 5 of 19 patients in the high stage group. The difference between the two groups was significant (p<0.005).
SADAKATA, S., FUKAO, A. and HISAMICHI, S. Mortality among FemalePractitioners of Chanoyu (Japanese “Tea-ceremony”) Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 475-477-A cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of drinking green tea on longevity was performed. Three thousand three hundred and eighty female practitioners of chanoyu (Japanese tea-ceremony), living in Tokyo, were followed from 1980 to 1988, and 280 were dead during this period. Standardized mortality ratios were estimated 0.55 when all Japanese women was used as standard population and 0.57 when women living in Tokyo was used, indicating the possibility that green tea is a protective factor for several fatal diseases.
SHIBATA, S., SATO, H. and MAKI, M. Calphobindin I (Annexin V) InhibitsProtein Kinase C. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1992, 166 (4), 479-481-We investigated the inhibitory effect of calphobindin I (CPB I) on protein kinase C activity. CPB I inhibited protein kinase C activity in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 70nM. The inhibition of protein kinase C by CPB I was Ca2+-dependent, and was partially overcome by increasing the concentration of phosphatidylserine. Since CPB I is widely distributed in various organs and cells, it is presumed that CPB I is an endogenous inhibitor of protein kinase C.