Egg adapted Sendai virus is fully infectious to both chick embryos and Earle's L cell. In the latter system, reproduction of egg infectious particles has been already proved. However, the L cell-grown virus differs from parent virus in its non-infectiousness, when L cell was used again for its reproduction. Thus the study was conducted to reveal the characters of this L cell-grown virus. First of all, it was shown that adsorption of this particular virus to the L cell did occur in the same efficiency as that of egg adapted virus when tested in the cold. Possible adsorption to the L cell was again confirmed by testing the interfering activity of the L cell infected with L cell-grown virus at 36°C, where HA production of challenged egg virus was used as an indicator. However, adsorption feature of the L cell-grown virus to the L cells was also shown to be quite characteristic. Adsorbed virus once proved in the cold was found to be elutable at 36°C, as was the case between a myxovirus and chicken red blood cells. Furthermore, this kind of adsorption was found to be eliminated by treatment with immune serum prepared against Sendai virus. Thus the L cell-grown virus was anticipated to be not equipped enough as egg adapted virus to invade the L cell again. Even when large amount of L-cell grown harvest was purified by density gradient centrifugation, most dense particles highly infectious to chick embryos failed to do so. Receptor destroying activity of this variant, so far examined by biological procedure, was not different from that of parent virus.
The electrocardiograms of 90 patients with ventricular septal defects before and after the repair of septal defects were comparatively studied from the standpoint of possible ill effect of open heart surgery on the heart. Right bundle branch block appeared frequently after the closure of ventricular septal defects (51%), particularly in those patients who also had infundibular stenosis and in whom some of the infundibular muscle was resected. The magnitude of the postoperative changes of right bundle branch block indicate that a conduction disturbance was produced, as a result of interruption of pathways in the septum. These alterations are in contrast to the postoperative disappearance or regression of secondary R wave in rSR' complex in other patients (15.5%) whose preoperative interpretations included incomplete right bundle branch block. Regression of these abnormalities supports the view that right ventricular hypertrophy or bundle branch block rather than delayed conduction through the septum was fault in the beginning. In connection with appearance and disappearance of right bundle branch block, the mechanism of appearance of rSR' complex in the right ventricular leads was discussed. The appearance of extensive T wave changes in the precordial leads after right ventriculotomy and closure of ventricular septal defects indicate a significant alteration in ventricular repolarization. The extent and duration of these abnormalities cannot be explained by surgical pericarditis, myocardial infarction, or the occasional development of left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to aortic insufficiency from an unsupported aortic cusp. T wave abnormalities were more common than in a smaller group of patients in whom bubble oxygenator were used for other operations which did not include injury to septal muscle from sutures, coronary air embolism, and trauma from the cardiotomy itself. Induced cardiac arrest, whether anoxic or drug induced, does not have a direct relationship to these changes. The clinical course of these patients thus far indicates that these electrocardiographic changes have no prognostic significance.
In 50 surgical cases with liver and biliary tract diseases, liver proteins were analyzed by the method of Sato et al., giving the results as follows: 1. The abnormal patterns of liver proteins in liver and biliary tract diseases were much more frequent as compared with those in stomach diseases. 2. In liver and biliary tract diseases, the abnormality in the protein composition was common even in cases without any clinical evidence of functional disturbances of the liver as well as in those with the perceptible disturbances.
Responses of the intraduodenal temperature of healthy adults to subcutaneous injections of benzylimidasolin, histamine and posterior pituitary hormone, and intravenous injections of glucose, magnesium sulfate and sodium dehydrocholate were studied simultaneously with those of the intragastric temperature; and the following facts were confirmed. 1. The intraduodenal temperature is 0.1-0.4°C higher than the intragastric one, and it changes generally in parallel with the latter. 2. The intragastric and intraduodenal temperatures do not change significantly by glucose. 3. The both temperatures drop by histamine, benzylimidasolin and mag-nesium sulfate. 4. In each of the both temperatures, some differences are observed among the combinations of the type of change, the maximum drop and the time for reaching it by the three drugs. 5. The drop in the intraduodenal temperature by benzylimidasolin is preceded by a slight rise which does not appear in the intragastric one. 6. The both temperatures show retardation of the drop or a slight rise at the initial stage by magnesium sulfate. 7. The both temperatures rise slightly by posterior pituitary hormone. 8. The both temperatures change quite irregularly by sodium dehydrocholate.
Mass examinations of the skin test of yato-byo in four towns and villages in Miyagi Prefecture were undertaken from February of 1955 to April of 1956 and following results were confirmed. 1. The positivity rate of the skin test is high in the intermountain districts but low in the seaside districts. 2. The positivity rate is higher in the male than in the female. 3. No association is found between the positivity rate and occupations. 4. The positivity rate increases in proportion to the increase in age. However, correlation between the skin test and age is relatively slight. 5. There is no correlation between the tuberculin skin test and the skin test of yato-byo.
From the three different surveys undertaken: 938, 014 outpatients for the three year period from 1953 to 1955 in 100 medical and 51 surgical clinics, 70, 969 of those in Kurokawa's Clinic for the last 20 years until 1955, and 3, 151 patients with peptic ulcer confirmed radiologically and/or surgically for the nine month period in 1956 in almost all areas in Japan, the following results concerning the clinical incidence of peptic ulcer were obtained. 1. The clinical incidence of peptic ulcer in Japan is generally 2-8 per cent of the total outpatients and 10-20 per cent of those with gastrointestinal diseases in medical as well as in surgical clinics. Peptic culcer is about twice as common as gastric cancer. 2. In Japan clinically 56 per cent of peptic ulcer are gastric ulcer, 40 per cent duodenal ulcer and 4 per cent coexistence of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The gastric to duodenal ulcer ratio is 1.40. Jejunal and esophageal ulcers are under 0.5 per cent. 3. Peptic ulcer is three to five times as common in the male as in the female. 4. The sex ratio (male/female) is highest in ulcus ventriculi et duodeni, in the second place in duodenal ulcer and lowest in gastric ulcer. In gastric ulcer the nearer the ulcer is to the pylorus, the higher it is. 5. The sex ratio is high in 20 to 59 years of age. 6. In peptic ulcer the female patient is relatively frequent in urban than in rural areas, in the acute than in the chronic form, in medical than in surgical clinics, and in older than in younger age groups. 7. The incidence of peptic ulcer, on the whole, is highest absolutely in the third decade and relatively in the fifth decade in both the male and female. 8. Gastric ulcer shows high incidence over 40 years of age and duodenal ulcer under 39 years of age. 9. When the age is grouped under each five years, the number of peptic ulcer patients shows two peaks in the 25-29 and 45-49 year age groups. The two peaks are more manifest in urban areas and in the acute form. 10. In peptic ulcer patients of middle and older age groups are relatively frequent in the chronic form, in gastric ulcer and in surgical clinics. 11. Although the ratio of gastrointestinal to total diseases is high in Tohoku and low in Kanto and southward, the ratio of peptic ulcer to gastrointestinal diseases is in the inverse relation. The female patients with peptic ulcer are more frequent in the northern than in the southern areas. 12. The incidence of peptic ulcer during the last 20 years was highest at the end of World War II. 13. The increase of peptic ulcer by the war is manifest in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades in both the male and female. 14. Peptic ulcer is more frequent in the winter than in the summer. 15. The frequency of chronic ulcer is relatively high in the male, in urban areas, in middle age groups, in surgical clinics and in ulcus ventriculi et duodeni.
From the data of 3, 151 peptic ulcer patients confirmed radiologically and/or surgically in 138 medical and 53 surgical clinics of university and other large hospitals in almost all areas in Japan during a nine month period of 1956, the following results concerning the environmental factor of peptic ulcer were obtained. 1. Duodenal ulcer is more frequent in professional, administrative, business and transport workers and students, and gastric ulcer in salesmen, agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and housewives. 2. The patients of the upper social class are more frequent in the chronic than in the acute ulcer. 3. Though the incidence of peptic ulcer in general is high in the educated class, duodenal ulcer is exceedingly frequent in persons who have received a higher education. 4. As for the ABO blood groups, the patients suffering from peptic ulcer show an increased incidence in group 0 and a correspondingly lower incidence in group A. 5. Pyknic type is relatively frequent in duodenal ulcer, leptosome type in gastric ulcer and athletic type in coexisting ulcers in the stomach and duodenum, though the constitutional type does not play an important part in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. 6. In peptic ulcer the heavy eater seems to be slightly more frequent. The light eater is relatively common in the chronic form and in ulcers of the corpus, antrum and pylorus of the stomach. 7. Habit of eating at irregular intervals is exceedingly frequent in the peptic ulcer patients. Habits of eating hot food and eating rapidly are also common. 8. Peptic ulcer has no or only a slight relation to drinking habit of alcohol. 9. Smoking habit is connected with the chronicity of peptic ulcer, though it is questionable that smoking is related to the occurrence of peptic ulcer. 10. Concerning the caffeine drinks a peculiar finding related to peptic ulcer is hardly observed. 11. The frequency of pregnancy seems to be less frequent in the female peptic ulcer patients than in the average.