The light from a tungsten lamp was conveyed into a fresh heparinized non-hemolyzed bovine blood by one part of a bundle of fiber optics which contains 800 fiber optics (30 μ in diameter). The reflected light from the blood was guided by the other two parts, through which two electrical outputs (I610 and Ieoo) were obtained by means of photomultipliers with optical filters of maximum transmission at 610 mμ and 800 mμ, respectively. When the oxygen saturation of blood was changed, Iolo was changed, while Ieoo remained constant, and the logarithm of I610/I800 was linearly related to the oxygen saturation. Reflexi-bility (a) of red blood cell was calculated according to the equation derived from an ideal case. α at 610 mμ (aelo) and at 800 mμ (a800) with 100% oxygen satura-tion were 78.5 and 27.3%, when expressed as per cent of the reflexibility of mercury. aelo was 2.9 times as large α800. α800 did not change with the change of oxygen saturation, but aelo increased as oxygen saturation was increased. The relationship between I610 and oxygen saturation was comparable with that between I610/I800 and oxygen saturation. It is suggested that the change of reflected light dependent on oxygen saturation is due to the change in α610.
An effort has been made on dogs to determine whether adenosine-3', 5'-monop'iosphate (3', 5'-AMP) and 5-hydroxytryptamine exert a direct effect on the 17-oxosteroid secretion by the testis, and to clarify whether the secretory response to 3', 5'-AMP is affected or not by the prior treatment with xnethylenedianiline, an inhi-bitor of steroidogenesis. 3', 5'-AMP (10 mg/kg) injected into the testicular tissue caused considerably increased secretion of 17-oxosteroids by the testis, although an intravenous injection of 3', 5'-AMP (20 mg/kg) was without effect, since it did not significantly alter the secretion of testicular 17-oxosteroids. The intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg of 5-hydroxytryptamine or intratesticular injection of total dose of 1.0 mg failed to produce a notable increase in the secretion of 17-oxosteroids in any instance. In dogs pre-treated with methylenedianiline (20 mg/kg), the 17-oxosteroid secretory response of the testis to an intratesticular injection of 3', 5'-AMP was completely abolished: no 17-oxosteroids were secreted from the testis. It is thus suggested that 3', 5'-AMP has the gonadotrophicc effect and its effect can be suppressed by pre-treatment with methylenedianiline, and that 5-hydroxytryptamine has no direct stimulatory effect on 17-oxosteroid secretion.
Electrophysiological and pharmacological nature of smooth muscle of guinea-pig and rabbit stomach was investigated by means of intracellular microelectrode technique. 1) The mean values of the resting potential were -46.4 and -57.3 mV in rabbit and guinea-pig, respectively. 2) Spike had an overshoot and was characterized by slower rising and faster falling phases followed by undershoot. 3) The latency of ejp ranged from 100 to 170 msec. Ejp was abolished by atropine but not by dTC. 4) A typical single ijp was 105 msec in latency, 0.48 and 3 sec in hyperpolarizing and repolarizing times, respectively. 5) Neither α-nor β-adrener-gic blockers were effective for ijp and PIO. 6) Chronaxie and rheobase were not so different for both ejp and ijp. 7) The thresholds for ijps measured from the cells at three different positions to a given stimulus point were almost the same. 8) Ijp was reversibly abolished by TTX. 9) By lowering Ca/Mg ratio ijp reduced in amplitude. 10) No significant effect of strychnine on both ijp and P10 -was observed. 11) Both ejp and ijp decreased in amplitude by adrenalin. It was concluded that ijp is mediated by some transmitter released from inhibitory postsynaptic neuron of noncholinergic and nonadrenergic nature.
Urinary 17-OHCS (total, free and individual fractions) were determined using TLC in patients who underwent various operations, and the following results were obtained. When control urine was collected on the day before operation, the values were high. Severe urinary infection, high fever, and irradiation treatment influenced the adrenocortical function. The variation of urinary free 17-OHCS corresponded with the variation of total 17-OHCS in major operations. With the progress of severity of surgical stress, increase in individual fractions was seen in the following order; THE, THE and compound F. Also there existed the limit of excretion for individual fractions except comp. F; camp. E up to about 1.0 mg/day, THE 7.0 to 10.0 mg/day, THE about 10.0 mg/day. The order of decrease after the maximum response was exactly opposite to that of increment.
SLC test with the mixed culture of the donor's skin and recipient's lymphocytes, was investigated for tissue typing in mice. Mice used were C3H/He (H-2k), CBA (H-2k) and (C3H/He × C57BL/6) F1. SLC test was carried out with a stationary monolayer culture in Eagle's basal medium containing 0.25% phytohemagglutinin-P for 72 hours. The extent of the reaction was estimated by both the frequency of the appearance of blast-like cells on morphological observation, and the number of the aggregated lymphocytes surrounding the skin in Ehrlich's sight. The extent of the blast formation and aggregation of lymphocytes was compared with the survival time of the skin grafts in various combinations of donors and recipients. A significant correlation between the result of SLC test and the transplant survival time was found.
The autologous transplantation of methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced sarcomas in non-inbred rats, which had been immunized intensively with various allogeneic tumors, was inhibited in 33 out of 65 cases tested. The differ-ence of tissues from which allogeneic tumors originated did not influence the inhibitory effect on autotransplantation. In 10 out of 69 non-immunized controls, the autotransplantation of MCA-induced sarcomas proved to be negative. In addition, remarkable lymphoid cell infiltration was demonstrated in most of tumors induced by MCA in non-inbred rats which were immunized intensively with allogeneic tumors. The autologous transplantation was more markedly inhibited in the tumor infiltrated with massive lymphoid cells than in that not infiltrated.
Under pentobarbital anesthesia, adult male dogs were irradiated with 1, 000 R of X-rays to their heads, and the adrenocortical response to histamine was investigated. The secretory activity was determined by estimating 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) in adrenal venous blood. One day after irradiation, an intravenous injection of histamine (0.5 mg/ kg body weight) to irradiated animals increased considerably the secretion of 17-OHCS from the adrenal, but the response was significantly less than that in non-irradiated animals. Thirty days after exposure, irradiated animals responded to the injection of histamine and secreted an appreciably large amount of 17-OHCS. However, the responsiveness was still lower than normal. It appears from these results that the corticotrophic effect of 0.5 mg histamine/kg can be dimi-nished considerably by pretreatment with head X-irradiation of 1, 000 R, possibly due to a disturbed activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.
The activity of lecithin formation from lysolecithin (lysolecithin: lysolecithin acyl-transferase) in 105000 xg supernatant fraction of various rat tissues was deter-mined with lysolecithin labeled with 3H-glycerol as substrate. The highest values of the activity (n moles/mg protein/min.) found in supernatant fractions in lung, intestine, liver and spleen were 9, 8, 5.7, 4.9 and 2.3, respectively. The activity was mainly localized in the supernatant fraction in spleen and in lung but it was rather lower in the supernatant fraction than in the particulate fraction in intestine and in liver. These tissues also showed a high activity of lysolecithinase in the following descending order; intestine, lung, liver and spleen. Low activiti-es of both enzymes were found in four tissues; heart, skeletal muscle, kidney and brain.
The postnatal development of secre-tory function of the eccrine sweat glands in the foot pad of the dog was followed from the newborn stage to about 6 months after birth, in particular reference to the cholinesterase activities associated with these glands. The sweat glands in the puppies of early postnatal days were found to be completely devoid of secretory activity up to 2 weeks or more after birth. Establishment of the sweat gland function was attained in the age of about one month in the majority. The cholinesterase activity in the secretory cells of the sweat glands, which is of pseudo type, was found to be almost neglegible within a few days of age. It started to exhibit slight but definite activity within 1_??_2 weeks and reached its maximum in about 4_??_5 weeks after birth, which roughly corresponded with the age when the secretory activity of the glands was established. In contrast, the nerve fibers surrounding the secretory portion of sweat glands showed the defi-nite specific cholinesterase activity already in the very early newborn stage. The significance of these findings was discussed.
Effect of cytochalasin B (CB) on in vitro contractile response of smooth muscle preparations of guinea pig taenia coli, vas deferens and estrogen treated rat uterus were investigated. In all these preparations, CB (1 to 10 μg/ml) caused prompt, significant and reversible inhibition of contraction. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was used to block the intramural nerve activity of these preparations. In the presence of TTX, CB still inhibited the contraction of taenia coli and uterine strip, but it (10 to 50 μg/ml) did not inhibit the direct muscular contraction of vas deferens. It was concluded from these results that in taenia coli and in myometrium, CB acts directly on smooth muscle cells and inhibits contraction, but in vas deferens, inhibitory effect of CB is almost entirely exerted through the inhibition of neural transmitter release from hypogastric nerve endings in this tissue.
Whether synthetic fragments of bradykinin, Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg, Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe, and Arg-Pro, have pain-producing acti-vity was investigated in conscious dogs by use of their vocalization as a measure of nociception. The three fragments were reported to be capable of producing edema in the rat paw and contraction of the guinea-pig isolated ileum. The three fragments and bradykinin were injected into the femoral and the superior mesen-teric artery through a chronically indwelling catheter. Whenever given into either artery, bradykinin elicited vocalization in a dose-dependent manner, and the threshold dose was about 1 nmol in both arteries. In contrast, all of the three ragments injected into either artery failed to cause vocalization or any other signs of nociception even with increasing doses up to 1 μmole. These results indicate that structural requirements for pain-producing activity are more string-ent than for edema-producing activity.
We performed 24 kidney transplantations in a 4-year period. All of our patients were suffering from chronic nephritis. Some of them were in the terminal stage of uremia. They were hyperventilating to eliminate carbon dioxide and to compensate metabolic acidosis. They were anemic and hypertensive. Generalized edema or peripheral edema, sometimes even pulmonary edema was present. Nausea and vomiting were also present. They had water and electrolyte imbalance associated with acid-base imbalance. Fevering was seen commonly. For such a patient, we had to correct metabolic disorders and to avoid any anesthetics which affect kidney and other organ systems. We chose spinal anesthesia, especially continuous spinal anesthesia technic, for the purpose of kidney transplantation because this technic less affects renal circulation and provides enough muscle relaxation throughout the operative procedure. After the spinal anesthesia was established, 40 mg of succinylcholine were given and an endotracheal tube was inserted. Nitrous oxide and oxygen were inhaled and thiopental and sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate were given intravenously as anesthetic adjuvant. Those are thought to be not nephrotoxic and the operations were performed without any problems. In our series, 15 out of 24 patients had undergone their kidney transplantation under continuous spinal anesthesia. In this clinical study, acid-base, electrolyte and other metabolites were examined before, during and after surgery. Postoperative cares are also discussed.
The in situ perfusion of the sinus node artery was performed under a constant pressure of 100mm Hg. Effect of haloperidol on sinus acceleration induced by dopamine and norepinephrine was examined in 7 vagotomized dogs. Doses of more than 3 μg of haloperidol usually induced a negative chronotropic response. The injection of more than 100 μg of haloperi-dol caused frequently sinus arrhythmia. An acceleration response not only to lug of dopamine but also to 0.1 μg of norepinephrine was significantly suppressed by 30 to 100 μg of haloperidol showing no differentiation of blocking activity of haloperidol between dopamine- and norepinephrine-induced positive chronotropic effects.