MORI, K., SAKAI, H., NAKANO, N., SUZUKI, S., SUGAI, K., HISA, S. and GOTO, Y. Congenital Factor X Defficiency in Japan. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 1-19 Congenital factor X deficiency is a very rare inheritedcoagulation abnormality. There have been reported 43 cases of this disorder in the world and only 2 cases in Japan. Recently, we have hemostatically and immunologically examined as many as 3 cases of this rare deasese, 18-year-old male, 11-year-old male and 6-year-old female. Hemostatic examinations revealed prolonged prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and decreased serum thromboplastic activity in these 3 cases. Stypven-cephalin clotting time was also abnormal. Factor X activities of our cases were low when assayed by either tissue thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin or by Stypven-cephalin mixture, which were 2.6, 1.5 and 4.5%, respectively. The half lives of infused factor X were 24, 38.6 and 56hr, respectiely, which are consistent with the data of other authors. Immunological assay of factor X (radioimmunoassay) showed 0.47μg/ml in the second case and 0.15μg/ml in the third case, from which our cases were considered to be classical factor X deficiency.
UEDA, H. Relation between Urinary Bicarbonate Concentration and CarbonDioxide Tension in Patients with Proximal or Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 21-32 The relation of urinary bicarbonate concentration (UHCO3-) to the difference between urinary pCO2 and arterial blood pCO2 (U-BpCO2) has not yet been clearly elucidated either in normal subjects or in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (distal RTA). Nor are there any reports dealing with the relation between UHCO3- and U-BpCO2 in patients with hypokalemia or with proximal renal tubular acidosis (proximal RTA). In the present study, with the objective of analyzing the differences in the production of urinary pCO2 in different groups of patients with hypokalemia, those with distal RTA and those with proximal RTA, we loaded these patients and control subjects with sodium bicarbonate, and studied the changes in the relations between UHCO3- and U-BpCO2. The following results were obtained: (1) (a) WhenUHCO3- was higher than 130mEq/liter: Normal subjects had a positive correlation between UHCO3- and U-BpCO2 (p<0.001). In the patients with hypokalemia and distal RTA, U-BpCO2 tended to show lower levels than in the control subjects when compared on the same level of UHCO3-. In the patient with proximal RTA, U-BpCO2 was higher than that in the control when compared on the same level of UHCO3- (p<0.001). (b) When UHCO3- was lower than 130mEq/liter: Normal subjects showed no correlation between UHCO3- and U-BpCO2 (p>0.7). In the patients with distal RTA, U-BpCO2 was lower than that in the control (p<0.005). (2) In the patients with hypokalemia, after the loading of potassium chloride, U-BpCO2 tended to rise compared on the same level of UHCO3-. (3) In the control subjects loaded with a large dose of phosphate, the values of U-BpCO2 compared on the same levelof UHCO3- were not distinctive compared with those in other control subjects, when UHCO3- was over 130mEq/liter. These results suggest that in the patient with proximal RTA, an increase in bicarbonate load in the distal tubule is likely to augment the formation of carbonic acid, raising the value of U-BpCO2. The fact that in the patients with distal RTA U-BpCO2 was lower than that in the control subjects seems to be attributed not only to the low value of UHCO3- due to potassium deficiency but also to the impairment of secretion of hydrogen ion in the distal tubule.
NASU, M. Bacteriocin (Marcescin) Typing of Clinically Isolated Serratiamarcescens. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 33-43 A study of bacteriocin (marcescin) typing was carried out by an agar cross streaking method (without any induction reagent) with 654 strains of Serratia marcescens recently isolated from clinical materials in Nagasaki University Hospital. In a complete checker-board experiment with 80 strains on bacteriocin production and sensitivity, 43 strains (54%) were productive, 74 (93%) were sensitive and 4 (5%) were negative. Immunity was confirmed in all strains. Eight out of 80 strains of Serratia marcescens were selected as indicators in order to achieve the best differentiation of strains in bacteriocin typing, and 654 strains were classified into 30 types by bacteriocin production typing and into 49 types by bacteriocin sensitivity typing; the former showed more stable results than the latter in reproducibility. Bacteriocins produced by this method were considered to be high molecular, phage tail-like group A bacteriocins reported by Prinsloo (1966). Bacteriocin production typing was more useful for classification and subdivision of strains than serotyping (0-group).
NASU, M. Epidemiological Studies of Serratia marcescens Infections byBacteriocin (Marcescin) Typing. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 45-52 -Serratia marcescens strains isolated from various clinical materials and the environment in Nagasaki University Hospital during the period from April 1970 to May 1979 were classified by bacteriocin (marcescin) production typing by means of the agar cross streaking method utilizing 8 indicators without induction. Six hundred and fifty-four isolated strains (406 from urine, 153 from sputum, 60 from pus & exudate, 13 from bile and 21 from others) in the above period were classified into 30 types by bacteriocin production typing. The distribution of the bacteriocin type of these strains differed according to the clinical material. Epidemiological investigations were performed using the isolates obtained from different patients and places in the Hospital during the 15 month period from January 1975 to March 1976. Each ward had a distinctive distribution of the bacteriocin type of the isolates. The bacterial flora in 100 sites of each ward was examined, and 5 strains of Serratia marcescens were obtained from the Gynecological Ward (4 from a washing recess, 1 from a treatment room) and 5 from the Urological Ward (2 from a floor, 1 from a bed). The bacteriocin types of these strains were coincident with that of the isolated from the patients admitted to both wards except one strain from the treatment room of the Gynecological Ward. Six patients were studied for comparison of the bacteriocin types of Serratia marcescens isolated from several materials taken from the same patients. Three of these patients demonstrated identical bacteriocin type strains in different materials, but the others showed different bacteriocin types of Serratia marcescens. Furthermore, the communicable form of Serratia marcescens among the hospitalized patients was classified by bacteriocin production typing.
MAKI, M. Effect of Conjugated Estrogen on Disseminated Intravascular CoagulationInduced by Endotoxin Infusion in Rabbits. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 53-60-Since conjugated estrogen has activities of inhibiting capillary permeability and of blocking α-adrenergic action, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of conjugated estrogen on experimentally induced disseminated Intravascular coagulation (DIC) by endotoxin infusion in rabbits. Endotoxin from E. coli alone was infused into 17 rabbits in a rate of 90μg/kg/hr for 10hr, the other 17 were given endotoxin with 20mg of conjugated estrogen, and 6 were infused 20mg of conjugated estrogen alone. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Decreases in platelet, fibrinogen and plasminogen, prolonged prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were noted in animals receiving intravenous drip infusion of endotoxin. All these laboratory findings were typical of consumption coagulopathy. Histologically, fibrin thrombi were demonstrated in the glomeruli, which also indicated the presence of DIC. (2) These changes were almost equally demonstrable in the rabbits given endotoxin alone and in those with endotoxin plus conjugated estrogen. (3) The group of rabbits receiving endotoxin and estrogen, however, showed a significantly low mortality during the study, compared with the group receiving endotoxin alone.
ISHIHARA, Y. and KITAMURA, S. Effect of Heparin Na on the Action ofVarious Bronchoconstrictors in Guinea Pig Tracheal Strips. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 61-65-The effect of heparin Na on the actions of various bronchoconstrictors was examined. Guinea pig tracheal strips were suspended in bioassay glass chambers and superfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution, pH 7.4, at 37°C saturated with oxygen and carbon dioxide gas (95:5, v/v). Contraction of the tissue was detected by an isotonic transducer and displayed on a polyrecorder. Heparin Na attenuated histamine-, prostaglandin F2α, acetylcholine-, serotonin-induced contractile responses does-dependently, and shifted the dose-response curves of histamine, prostaglandin F2a, acetylcholine, serotonin and bradykinin downward.
OH-ISHI, S., UENO, A., UCHIDA, Y., KATORI, M., HAYASHI, H., KOYA, H., KITAJIMA, K, and KIMURA, I. Abnormalities in the Contact Activationthrough Factor XII in Fujiwara Trait: A Deficiency in Both High and Low MolecularWeight Kininogens with Low Level of Prekallikrein. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 67-80 Fujiwara trait, the first case of kininogen deficiency in Japan previously reported which did not show any clinical symptom except the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was further examined. The activated partial thromboplastin time of the patient was corrected by addition of normal, Factor XII deficient or Fletcher plasma, but not corrected by Fitzgerald or Williams plasma. It was also corrected by addition of highly purified bovine or human high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen, but not by low molecular weight (LMW) kininogen. When total kininogen was measured as the amount of bradykinin released by trypsin, only a trace amount was detected in Fujiwara as well as Williams plasma. No immunoreactive protein against anti-human-HMW-kininogen nor anti-human-LMW-kininogen was found in Fujiwara plasma. Acetone-kaolin-activated plasma kallikrein was not generated by Fujiwara plasma. Substitution with normal plasma in various ratios showed the generation of various plasma kallikrein activities. Calculations with these activities of mixed plasma gave the prekallikrein content of Fujiwara trait plasma about 30% of the normal level. These results suggest that Fujiwara trait is very similar to Williams trait in that both plasmas were deficient in HMW and LMW kininogens with reduced content of prekallikrein.
YAMAUCHI, N., FUJITANI, Y, and OIKAWA, T. Somatosensory Evoked PotentialsElicited by Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation of Each Single Pain orTactile Spot of the Skin. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 81-92 Single pain and tactile spots on the dorsum of the right hand in man were stimulated by electric pulses and mechanical taps using a needle to a pain spot and a horse tail bristle to a tactile one. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and far field potentials (FFPs) were observed in three volunteers by averaging of 200 or 400 samples of responses recorded from scalp points corresponding to the left and right somatosensory areas (LSA and RSA). For SEP measurements, the difference between responses at LSA and RSA was obtained in order to specify the optimum response at LSA. The patterns of SEPs elicited by mechanical or electrical stimulation to a pain spot were similar to those to a tactile one. The typical SEP to mechanical stimulation consisted of N23, P31, N40, P49, N64, P87, N114 and P147, while thit to electrical stimulation did of N24, P33, N42, P52, N66, P95, N122 and P156. Consequently, mean peak latencies of the later components in SEPs elicited by mechanical stimulation were earlier than those to electrical one. The SEP amplitudes for mechanical stimulation were 1-3μV and were larger than those to electrical one. By mechanical stimulation FFPs could not be obtained, while by electrical stimulation FFPs in peak latency of approximately 14 msec (P14) were seen. No specific components to sensory modality of pain or tactile sensation were observed either in SEPs or in FFPs.
OKI, F., SAITO, T. and WATANABE, H. A Fluid Dynamical Theory of Microexplosionfor Medicine and Biology. Tohoku J. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 93-104 -The possibility of an application of microexplosion to medicine has been studied by Watanabe et al., who found silver azide and lead azide to be most suitable explosives for this purpose. In the present paper, we calculated by means of fluid dynamics some mechanical effects produced by “microexplosives” such as (i) solid-angle dependence of pressure, (ii) distance-dependence of pressure, (iii) velocity of the shock wave, (iv) time-dependence of pressure, (v) temperature and (vi) energy efficiency.
KOBAYASHI, K. and KANOH, H. Incorporation of Radioactive Free FattyAcids into Glycerolipids of Subcellular Fractions from Human Tonsil Lymphocytes Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 105-118-human tonsil lymphocytes were cultured with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) for 1-72hr. Throughout the culture periods studied, PHA stimulated similarly the synthesis of triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from radioactive free fatty acids. There was no significant difference in the stimulations of cellular uptake of different labeled fatty acids tested (palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidonic acids). Human tonsil lymphocytes were shown to be composed of heterogeneous cell populations with respect to the activities of cellular uptake of free fatty acids. The cells were subfractionated after being labeled with radioactive fatty acids for 6hr. We found that the light and heavy plasma membranes, which are known to occur in human tonsil lymphocytes, are distinctly different from each other with respect to the labeling patterns of glycerolipids and also to the response to PHA. In the light plasma membranes, the labeling of phospholipids relative to that of triacylglycerol was much less than that of heavy plasma membranes and other organelles, though radioactivity of phosphatidylcholine per mg protein of light plasma membranes was the highest of any other organelles. Furthermore, the stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by PHA appeared most markedly in the light plasma membranes in comparison to other subcellular fractions.
ENDO, F., SASAKI, T., SEKIGUCHI, Y., HARUYAMA, T., SATO, M., ABE, K, and YOSHINAGA, K. The Role of Monocytes and Prostaglandin E in the Regulation ofMitogen Response. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1981, 133 (1), 119-120 The incubation of human monocyte rich fraction with PWM and SRBC revealed the production of significant amount of PGE in the supernate, suggesting the participation of PGE produced by monocytes in mitogen response. Con A-induced 3H-thymidine incorporation by lymphocytes was enhanced by addition of monocytes, and was further increased in the presence of indomethacine. These indicate that monocytes have helper effect in mitogen stimulation and are regulating the response through the production of PGE.