Lymphogranuloma is not localized and only linked with the RS in so far as its cells are of retothelial origin. Differentiation of the characteristic histological pattern has shown that the histogenesis of the lymphogranulomatous focus, with empty necrobiosis, granuloma formation and sclerotic obliteration, corresponds to the regular biopathological phases of inflammation. As a reactive process of varied duration and degree, lymphogranulomatosis can present various, including tumor-like changes, without satisfying the histological criteria of auto-nomous neoplasia or prospective sarcoma. Even though the etiology of Hodgkin's disease is unknown, it is clinically, anatomically and histologically a separate disease. A survey of the various morphological findings leads to classifying it as an inflammation. It may be that the Hodgkin's disease, like rheumatic diseases, nephritis or lupus erythematosus, is a poly-etiological reaction product, a course emancipated from the cause and proceeding by its own laws.
Bilirubin dissolved in the solvent of an optimal composition was injected into the peritoneal cavity of newborn rats and excess bilirubin remaining in the liver was then determined. An excess bilirubin was given intraperitoneally to the newborn rats. 48 hours later, the animals were killed, and the liver was extracted with 80% acetone. The optimal composition of the solvent for crystal-line bilirubin to be injected intraperitoneally was found to be Na2CO3 1.05g/dl+ NaCl 0.85g/dl; and 0.125mg of bilirubin was found to be adequate for the newborn rat when inhibiting action of drugs on bilirubin conjugation and excretion was to be studied.
The vascular behavior of various areas in the cortex and thalamus during arousal reaction of EEG was studied in locally anesthetized and with Flaxedil immobilized cats. For inducing the arousal reaction, iterative rectangular pulses were applied to the mesencephalic reticular formation, and for measuring local blood flow in the brain, the heated thermistor method described previously was utilized. In the cat with the intact central nervous system, the arousal reaction accompanied always a temporal rise in the systemic blood pressure. In parallel with this pressor response, increases in blood flow occurred, both in cortical and thalamic areas. In the oncéphale isolé cat, EEG arousal appeared without any observable change of blood pressure. Despite the lack of the pressor response in this preparation, EEG arousal induced a definite flow increase in the thalamic areas lasting for over 30 see, whereas the local blood flow in the cerebral cortex remained unchanged during the reaction as far as it was measured by the heated thermistor method. When i.v. injection of Nembutal was made, both EEG and thalamic flow response to MRF stimulation diminished concurrently. Stimulation to VA and CM also evoked similar flow responses.
The main ingredient of the pigmented calcium stone is calcium bilirubinate. This substance has been known to be formed by hydrolysis of bilirubin glucuronide, the commonest type of bile pigment in bile, by β-glucuronidase of bacterial origin and subsequent combination of the resulting free bilirubin with calcium. However, it also seems to be possible that a portion of bilirubin exists in bile as labile molecular compounds or conjugates which, in some instances, are able to combine with calcium to be precipitated as calcium bilirubinate. To evaluate the latter substances quantitatively, the authors established a systematic fractionation of bile pigments in bile using several solvents, and isolated some fractions consisting of labile bilirubin conjugates with phospholipids, proteins and bile acids.
The following studies were carried out in a case of primary aldosteronism on the diet containing 10g of NaCl and 3g of K per day. NaCl restriction for 9 days resulted in a marked decrease of K excretion. The Cl excretion also decreased in the same manner as the Na. Despite these urinary changes, the plasma K, Cl, and CO2 levels were essentially unchanged. On spironolactone administration, on the other hand, plasma CO2 fell, and K and Cl were elevated significantly, while there were a decrease of K excretion and a relative gain of Cl in excess of Na. A reduction of the urine pH was not demonstrated immediately after the beginning of spironolactone administration; acidification of the urine was gradually induced as the plasma CO2 lowered. After cessation of spironolactone, the Cl excretion became higher than the Na, accompanying further acidification of the urine. Although the increment of the H+ excretion in the case of ammonium chloride loading was entirely within the normal range, the Cl excretion did not increase at least during the first 2 days. The urinary acidification at night was shown in all the presented conditions. On the basis of these findings, it is suggested that Cl is a critical factor governing the development and correction of metabolic alkalosis in primary aldosteronism. In addition, it is reasonable to presume that the alkaline urine in primary aldosteronism is not primarily due to aldosterone and not merely to K depletion, but to a function of the extracellular alkalosis to a certain extent.
Sixty-one cases of radiation-induced cancer were collected from selected big hospitals in Japan during 1961 and 1962. Of 61, 54 were cancer of skin or neck including the thyroid gland. All these cancers were developed in the area previously irradiated for treatment of benign diseases over throe years ago. The rate of male to female was approximately the same as that of natural cancers. Radiation-induced cancer tended to occur more frequently in younger ages than natural cancers particularly in thyroid cancer. The latent period was dis-tributed between 3 and 47 years with an average of 19.8 years. The frequency distribution of the latent period showed nearly the logarithmic normal curve. The latent period tended to increase with a decrease of radiation dose. About a half of original diseases previously irradiated for was tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis. Thyroid adenoma and various skin diseases were followed in this order.
Bei der Sektion sins 48 jährigen Mannes wurde die sog. alveoläre Proteinose der Lunge festgestellt. In der Lunge dieses Falles konnten wir aber mit Hilfe von verschiedenen Färbungen, wie z. B. Levaditischer Versilberung, Giemsa-Färbung und Goodpasture-McCallumscher Färbung, Pneumocystis carinii und ihre Degenerationsformen eindeutig nachweisen. Ferner wurden auch bei anderen 2 Fällen von alveolärer Proteinose der Lunge Pneumoeysten im Alveolarinhalt deutlich festgestellt. Daher nehmen wir an, dass die sog. alveoläre Proteinose der Lunge durch eine Pneumocystisinfektion hervorgerufen wird und eine Erwachsenonform von Pneumocystis-Pnoumonie darstellt. Nach unserer Auffassung besteht die eigenartige intraalveoläre Eiweissmasse bei der Bog. aveolrären Proteinose der Lunge hauptsächlich aus degenerierten bzw. zerfallenen Pneumocystenkörpern und abgestossenen, zugrunde gegangenen Alveolarzellen.
The radiophotography-originally called “indirect radiography”-introduced as a method of radiocinematography was applied for the mass investigation of the lung tuberculosis for the first time in Japan in 1936 by the present author in-dependently of those in any other countries. But, as the availability and the faculty of the RP at that time were so weak to utilize for the minute detection of small tuberculous foci of the lung that the present author began to strive for the technical improvement of the RP-apparatus in every detail of the things and for the exploitation of some basic principles of the RP-procedures. The first step was to improve the whole RP-set adequately fit for the repeated use and safe transportability of the apparatus to every rural part of the country. And the second was to improve the diagnostic faculty of the RP. In this con-nection, a standard lamp for measuring the luminosity of the fluorescent screen and a resolving power system for measuring the diagnostic faculty was introduced. For the purpose of step-up of the whole RP faculty, the exposure-system, camera, film and fluorescent screen were strongly improved. The results of these studies can be summarized as the appearance of the autobus-RP-set, installed with condensor-discharger and rotating anode tried x-ray tube with sufficiently good insurance from harmful x-ray tube with sufficient-ly good insurance from harmful x-ray exposure to examinees and to the per-sonnels, and the far improved diagnostic faculty as described in this paper-the resolving power rose from 1.5 to 2.5. The whole effort and studies were done by cooperation of fellow workers under the direction of the present author.