ISHIMORI, A., SAKURADA, H. and YAMAGATA, S. Gastrectomy and Secretory Function of the Stomach. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1972, 107 (1), 1-13-The secretory function of the remnant of the resected stomach together with the proteolytic activity of urine was compared among various types of gastrectomy in reference to the site and the degree of resection and to atrophic gastritis in the remnant. The surgical removal of pyloric antrum was found to lower or lose the proteolytic activity of gastric juice at pH 3.5 or higher, but not of urine. Atrophic gastritis in the remnant of the resected stomach was also found to influence the acid and protease secretion of the stomach in the parallel manner, but this is less clearly seen in the proteolytic activity of urine. The step-wise dissociation between acid and protease secretion and between synthesis and secretion of protease was demonstrated as the characteristic feature of the functional disturbance of the stomach due to atrophic gastritis. Namely, the abolition of acid secretion precedes that of pepsinogen secretion and then pepsinogen continues to be synthesized and excreted into urine after the cessation of its secretion into the gastric lumen. The difference of the inborn resisting capacity among different types of secretory cells was suggested as an important contributing factor. The importance of the simultaneous measurement of the gastric and urinary proteolytic activity was stressed in order to evaluate the histologic and functional status of gastric mucosa precisely. The secreting secretory cell mass was proposed to represent reasonably the gastric secretory response obtained by the maximal stimulation.-gastric secretion; pepsin; uropepsin; gastrectomy; atrophic gastritis
The right ureters of 5 adult dogs were 1) cut open longitudinally for 1cm and sutured lengthwise, 2) cut 3-4cm lengthwise and sutured lengthwise, 3) cut 1cm and sutured transversely and 4) cut 3-4cm and sutured transversely. Electroureterograms above and below the suture were taken for 5 hours after the operation. The results can be summarised as follows: The discharges starting from the ureteropelvic junction began to pass over the suture in 30 to 100 minutes after the operation in most cases, then gradually increased and attained a nearly constant rate in 120 minutes. The earliest discharge passing over the suture occurred in the short-incision lengthwise-sutured cases in 30 to 45 minutes after the operation. Next, in 30 to 100 minutes in the long-incision lengthwise-sutured cases, and finally in 60 to 90 minutes in the short-incision transverse-sutured cases. There were only little differences among them except in the long-incision transverse-sutured cases, in which no discharge was observed for 5 hours after the operation. From the findings obtained, it has been shown that normal discharge function of the ureter was least inhibited in the short-incision lengthwisesutured cases, next least inhibited in the long-incision lengthwise-sutured cases and short-incision transverse-sutured cases in close succession, and most inhibited in the long-incision transverse-sutured cases.
Based on 4, 247 X-ray examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract in the Department of Radiology, Niigata University, concomitant gastric and duodenal ulcers were analyzed statistically. The frequency of gastric ulcer among patients with duodenal ulcer is higher than that among patients with other than duodenal ulcer, with a statistical significant difference. This fact indicates that coexistence of gastric and duodenal ulcers is not incidental.
In this study a comparative evaluation of pyelography, renal angiography and renal scintigraphy in diagnosing renal tumor was made on 60 subjects. Hypernephroma was most frequently diagnosed by angiography (96%), followed by pyelography (85%) and scintigraphy (65%). Of pelvic tumors, 78% of them were diagnosed by pyelography, 78% by angiography and 50% by scintigraphy. Wilms' tumors that could not be diagnosed by pyelography could be diagnosed either by angiography or by scintigraphy. These results suggest that, in diagnosing renal tumors prior to operation, the application of one of these three methods is not sufficient, and examinations with all of them will be necessary to succeed.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) of human red cells, especially of newborns, was quantitated by Ascoli's ring test. The anti-CA B serum was obtained from a rabbit immunized with pure CA B prepared by column chromatography, and the antiserum reacted with CA B, CA A and another isozyme of adult blood. Only CA B was demonstrated in the cord blood by the antiserum. CA B amounts in the cord blood hemolysates (142 cases) ranged from 0.0625 to 2mg/ml of hemolysate containing 36g hemoglobin per 100ml. The mean was 0.841 (S. D. 0.393)mg/ml of the hemolysate. The average of CA amount of the adult blood hemolysates (23 cases) including a small amount of the other isozymes was 7.96 (S. D. 0.528)mg/ml. The average of CA B amounts of 4 premature infants was 0.083mg/ml. Fetal hemoglobin (HbF) measured by one minute alkali-denaturation was 70.7 (S. D. 6.64) % in 116 cord bloods, and CA B amount of the bloods was inversely related to HbF percentage. It is presumed that HbF gene is probably an antagonistic control of CA B gene.
In the course of our study on pathogenesis of gallstone, we have noticed that there might be a certain common mechanism between coagulation of calculus ingredients in bile or urine and calcification of necrotic foci. In both occasions, the substrate is to be regarded as colloid in which calcium salts precipitate and coagulate to form calculi or calcified foci, respectively. A histochemical study was performed on calcification in necrotic foci, particularly on tuberculous necrosis and atheromatous plaque, and following results were obtained. In calcified foci of both tuberculous and atheromatous necroses, collagen fibrils and specific kinds of mucosubstances, especially acid one, were found in appreciable amounts distributing diffusely around the particles of precipitated calcium salts. It is highly probable that both presence of mucosubstances and regeneration of collagen fibrils are indispensable to bridge particles of calcium salts in necrotic foci through adsorption by their functional groups as in formation of calculi in bile or urine. Contrary to the traditional views, calcification of necrotic foci (so-called dystrophic calcification) seems to be a result of metabolism, that is a type of tissue repair similar to organization. It may rationally be called as a healing by third intention. The term of “dystrophic calcification” may not be a proper expression and its position in pathology has also to be reconsidered.
Identification of the auto-antibody producing cells was attempted by the inununocyte adherence between the antigen coated erythrocytes and the autoantibody producing cells in the peripheral blood, lymph node and spleen of the cases with autoinunune diseases. The reaction was observed under a phase contrast microscope. The methods available for differentiation of antibody producing cells from antibody fixed cells in the on-cell-surface reaction were tested and discussed. The appearance rate of the auto-antibody producing cell was I to 3 per cent in the peripheral. hynmphocytes and 2 to 10 per cent in the lymph node cells. There was no correlation between the serum antibody titer and the number of positive cells. It has been revealed that the positive reaction of SLE is specifically inhibited by anti-IgG (γ-chain specific) serum and that of RA is inhibited by anti-Igbl (μ-chain specific) serum. These data suggest that antibody producing cells of SLE and RA produce IgG and Igbl antibodies, respectively. The present method is based on the “virgin antibody” named by the present authors in 1969. that is, the antibody just produced from the antibody producing cells and not yet combined with antigen.
Subcutaneous tumor was produced with Ehrlich ascites tumor in the subcutaneous tissue of the right shin of a mouse. X-ray irradiation to the area of tumor transplantation was carried out using the total dose of 5, 000 R, i.e., 500 R daily, 500 R every 3 days, 500 R every 5 days, 200 R daily; 3, 000 R in a single dose; and 5, 000 R in a single dose. Inhibition of tumor growth was more pronounced as a period of irradiation became shorter, and less effective as it became longer. Life prolongation effect was poor when a period of irradiation was extremely short or long as the total dose was kept constant. Those with marked inhibition of tumor growth did not always exhibit good life prolongation effect. No rectilinear relationship was found between these two. When the period of irradiation and total dose are same and the dose for a single irradiation is different; in other words, the interval and frequency of fractional irradiation are different, the effect varies. Even in a single irradiation, a considerable effect may be expected when an adequate dose is used.
The effect of tetrodotoxin on the heart muscle of Ciona intestinalis, a tunicate, was examined since tetrodotoxin is known to abolish the sodium spikes in various excitable tissues by suppressing the sodium conductance. Tetrodotoxin did not influence the shape of action potential of ciona heart even at the concentration of 10-4g/ml, which is about 10, 000 times that effective for the suppression of rate of rise of action potential in frog heart.
With the aid of Erma PWA-5 oximeter and Erma Model 303 hemoglobinometer, continuous in situ determinations of the blood oxygen content were undertaken in the dog. The oxygen content values obtained in this way were found to be in close agreement with those obtained by direct manometric method of Van Slyke and Neill.
Tetrodotoxin was injected selectively into the A-V node artery of the dog heart in situ, of which both vagi and both cardiac nerves were cut. Tetrodotoxin at doses of 1 to 3 μg abolished effects of electrical stimulation of either the left vagus or the left cardiac nerve on A-V conduction without any direct effect on A-V conduction. A very large dose of tetrodotoxin decelerated A-V conduction. These results led to the conclusion that cells concerned with major part of the A-V delay was less affected by tetrodotoxin than the autonomic nerve fibers that cause decisive effect on A-V conduction.
The isolated canine right atrium containing the S-A node area was perfused via the sinus node artery at a constant pressure of 100mm Hg with the blood from a donor dog by a cross-circulation technique. The selective administration of caffeine at doses of 100 μg to 1mg into the sinus node artery of the isolated right atrium always induced double peaked positive chronotropic responses, i.e., rapidly induced initial acceleration followed by slowly induced but long-lasting one. The initial positive response to caffeine was hardly suppressd by either adrenergic beta-blocking agents, H 56/28 (alprenolol) and propranolol, or tetrodotoxin. On the contrary, the secondary positive chronotropic response was effectively inhibited by either adrenergic beta-blocking agents or tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that caffeine-induced initial acceleration is not due to catecholamine while the secondary one is due to catecholamine which is released by excitation of local adrenergic fibers.
The in situ perfusion of the sinus node artery in six dogs was performed under constant pressure of 100mm Hg. Adenosine, cyclic AMP and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were administered into the sinus node artery. Adenosine at doses of 1 to 10 μg always induced marked negative chronotropic response. On the other hand, not only cyclic AMP, 100 μg to 1mg, but also dibutyryl cyclic AMP never induced any chronotropic response.