SASAKI, R., KUROKAWA, T. and TERO-KUBOTA, S. Nature of Serum AscorbateRadical and Its Quantitative Estimation. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 113-119-A doublet signal was observed in human serum by the ESR technique at room temperature. This radical had a g value of 2.0054 and a hyperfine splitting constant of 1.84 gauss and was assigned to ascorbate radical. The ascorbate radical in serum was very stable. The intensity of ESR signal showed no differences between serum and plasma of the same individual. Photosensitivity of the ascorbate radical in serum and sodium ascorbate solution was examined and enhancement of ESR signal by irradiation was observed, although the responses in serum and in ascorbate solution were considerably different. The intensity of ESR signal was proportional to the concentration of ascorbate solution. The ESR intensity of ascorbate radical can be used as a reliable method for quantitative estimattion of ascorbate radical.
TSUKAMOTO, T., EBINA, T., TAKASE, S., ITAHARA, K. and ISHIDA, N. Increased Frequency of Lymphocytotoxic Antibodies in Patients with MultipleSclerosis Correlated with Disease Activity. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 121-128-Cold-reactive lymphocytotoxic antibodies (LCA) were investigated in sera from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in relation to disease activity. When a serum with more than 20% cytotoxicity is considered positive for the presence of LCA, the positive frequency at remission was 21% (6/28), but at exacerbation it was 83% (10/12). All the sera from normal controls were negative. The average of cytotoxicity expressed as a % killing of target cells by sera at remission was 13%; on the other hand, at exacerbation it was 39%. These results showed that in multiple sclerosis the level of LCA was not persistently high, but increased correlating with the disease activity. From these findings and previous experiments of rescue of measles virus antigens, it was suggested that multiple sclerosis is likely a virus-induced autoimmune disease.
KOSAKA, K., NAGASAKI, H. and NAKAMURA, R. Finger Tapping Test as a Means to Differentiate Olivo-Ponto-Cerebellar Atrophy among SpinocerebellarDegenerations. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 129-134-A finger tapping test in which the subject was requested to respond synchronously to the periodic sound signal was performed on 10 patients with OPCA, 10 other SCD and five suspected OPCA. The results indicated that the response of the patients with OPCA was specific among SCD. The response did not more synchronize to the signal above 2.5Hz and a random mixture of two types of the response appeared with frequencies lower and higher than the signal. These delayed and hastened responses represented the characteristic response feature for the patients with SCD except OCPA and those with Parkinson's disease, respectively. Two types of the response were related to cerebellar lesions and to nigrostriatal lesions. The finger tapping test thus offers a useful means to differentiate OPCA among SCD.
TORINUKI, W., KUMAI, N., MIURA, T. and SEIJI, M. Chemiluminescence ofUV-Irradiated Linolenic Acid and Squalene. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 135-140-An emission spectral analysis was carried out on ultraweak chemiluminescence emitted from UVB-irradiated linolenic acid and squalene. The main emission species produced by the transition of (1Δg) (1Δg) dimer and an additional weak band near 477.5nm (0, 0) by the transition of (1Δg) (1∑g+) to (3∑g-) (3∑g-)were found by spectroscopic analysis of chemiluminescence in both cases of irradiated linolenic acid and of squalene. A distinct peak around 410-420nm was observed in irradiated squalene and the emitter seems to be due to the excited carbonyl compound.
MARUYAMA, Y., NUNOKAWA, T., KOIWA, V., ISOYAMA, S., IKEDA, K., INO-OKA, E. and TAKISHIMA, T. A Comparison of Left Ventricular Volume-PressureRelations of Excised Perfused Canine Hearts in Isovolumic Contraction, Arrest andFibrillation. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 141-155-The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of various conditions such as beating, arrest and fibrillation on left ventricular (LV) diastolic compliance. In coronary-arterially perfused canine isolated hearts, LV volume-pressure (v-p) relations for both inflation and deflation were obtained by infusing and withdrawing a saline. The v-p curves of inflation and deflation were both sigmoidal, but the resultant v-p relations for deflation produced a shift to the left of inflation curves, showing hysteresis between inflation and deflation in three ventricular states. The effect of arrest or fibrillation, especially of fibrillation, on LV distensibility was discernible, and the resultant v-p relations produced a marked shift to the right, showing an apparent decrease in LV volume (LVv) at a given filling pressure. It was concluded that it is very questionable to identify the stiffness of the beating heart with the non-beating heart.
KIKUCHI, R., SASAKI, H., NAKAMURA, M. and TAKISHIMA, T. Effect of VagalTone on Airway Smooth Muscle Force and Peribronchial Pressure in Dogs. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 157-162-The main lobar bronchi were isolated airtight from the rest of the lung in excised dog lung. In the relaxed isolated lobar bronchi in excised dog lung, we simulated the percent narrowing of bronchial diameter which was observed with vagus nerves intact and stimulated relative to that with vagus nerves cut (relaxed state). The percent narrowing of bronchi with vagus nerve intact and stimulated were adapted from the data by Hahn et al. (J. appl. Physiol., 41, 581-589, 1976). The forces of airway smooth muscle (Psm) were obtained as the negative intrabronchial pressure (Pbr) when the isolated bronchi were narrowed to the same diameter as those with vagus intact and stimulated, and they were 5 to 10cmH2O and 10 to 30cmH2O, respectively. Peribronchial pressure (Px) was obtained as the difference of Pbr in the conditions of intact and dissected parenchyma when the diameter of the isolated bronchi were simulated to those with vagus intact and stimulated, and they were positive relative to pleural pressure (Ppl) with vagus cut, negative to Ppl with vagus stimulated and near zero relative to Ppl with vagus intact. It was suggested that smooth muscle tone which narrowed the bronchi to the same extent as the diameter with vagus intact made homogeneous expansion between bronchi and lung parenchyma.
ISAWA, T., TESHIMA, T., HIRANO, T., EBINA, A., SHIRAISHI, K., FUKUDA, Y., and KONNO, K. Effect of Isoproterenol on Regional Pulmonary Perfusion in theReimplanted Lung of the Dog. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 163-168-In the reimplanted lung lobe of the dog, regional pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction did not occur when isoproterenol was administered and the pharmacological action of isoproterenol in the reimplanted lung lobe was not antagonized by propranolol, whereas propranolol did block its action in the heart depressing the cardiac rate.
CHIBA, M., OHNEDA, A., SAKAI, T. and GOTO, Y. Insulin Response to Glucagonwith or without Tolbutamide in Normal and Diabetic Subjects. Tohoku J. exp. Mcd., 1982, 136 (2), 169-175-In order to investigate insulin response to glucagon, eight normal subjects and thirty diabetic patients were studied. According to fasting blocd glucose, diabetic patients were classified into three groups; mild, moderate and severe. An oral glucose tolerance test, a glucagon test and a tolbutamide-glucagon test were performed at intervals of several days. In the glucose tolerance test, insulin response was reduced in the patients with moderate or severe diabetes. Plasma insulin increased and reached a peak 3min after glucagon injection (glucagon 1) in the normal controls (66.1±9.9μU/ml), while plasma insulin response to glucagon 1 was reduced in the three diabetic groups (35.8 ±7.3, 33.2±9.7 and 22.9±5.0μU/ml, respectively). In the normal subjects glucagon injected 60min after tolbutamide (glucagon 2) caused a rise in insulin (72.0+4.9μU/ml). In the diabetic groups, glucagon 2 caused a reduced response of plasma insulin (38.6±8.9, 49.5±17.4 and 34.8±11.3μU/ml, respectively). Glucagon with or without tolbutamide produced a far greater maximal response of plasma insulin in all the diabetic groups than in the normal subjects, while glucose produced a not significantly different increment of plasma insulin between the normal subjects and the mild diabetics. The present study demonstrates the glucagon injection with or without tolbutamide could clearly discriminate the insulin response in diabetics from that in normal subjects.
ASHIKAWA, K., INO-OKA, E., KITAOKA, S., ISHIDE, N., TAMAKI, K., ISOYAMA, S., YANAGIYA, T., OKUBO, T. and TAKISHIMA, T. A Continuous andQuantitative Analysis of the Uneven Distribution of Myocardial Blood Flow inDogs Using a Distribution Function of the Clearance Time Constant. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 177-194-A continuous and quantitative analysis of the uneven distribution of coronary blood flow was accomplished in anesthetized open-chest dogs using the distribution function of the hydrogen (H2) clearance time constant. The distribution function was derived by analysing the H2 washout curves in the coronary sinus which were obtained by the H2 clearance method, using platinum electrodes placed in the coronary sinus. Twelve to seventeen platinum electrodes were employed to obtain simultaneous measurements of the regional myocardial flow before and after stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Theoretically, the H2 washout curves in the coronary sinus could be interpreted as a function with multi-exponential characteristcs, represented by an equation similar to the Laplace transform of the distribution function of the H2 clearance time constant. Therefore, we assumed that such an equation would represent the uneven distribution of coronary blood. We obtained the distribution function by using an approximation method to solve the integral equation and we employed digital computation to increase the resolution. Before stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the log distribution function curves with respect to the H2 clearance time constant were roughly symmetrical in terms of the maximum peak in the time constant. After stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the log distribution function curves had two peaks and the range of distribution was much larger than that before coronary stenosis. Our findings may prove to be valuable as a technique to estimate continuously and quantitatively the heterogeneous distribution of myocardial blood flow.
HOSHIAI, H., TAKAHASHI, K., FURUHASHI, N., WADA, Y., UEHARA, S. and SUZUKI, M. Cytoplasmic Estrogen Receptors of Rat Mammary Glands duringPregnancy and Puerperium. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 195-202-The variation of cytoplasmic estrogen receptor in the mammary gland during pregnancy and puerperium was studied to determine the role of estrogens in the mechanism of lactation. Cytosol estrogen receptors from rat mammary glands were incubated with 3H-estradiol, and the free estradiol was removed using dextran-coated charcoal. The maximum number of binding sites in the cytosol was estimated from saturation curves and Scatchard analysis. During pregnancy the number of binding sites was relatively low (2.5 to 3.8 pmoles per mg protein), but increased after delivery to 7.8 pmoles per mg protein. The number of estrogen binding sites in the mammary glands of lactating rats five days after delivery was at the same level as on the day of delivery. However, at ten days after delivery the number of binding sites increased markedly to 58.9 pmoles per mg protein. The number of estrogen-binding sites in the mammary glands of lactating rats was decreased by castration and by the injection of testosterone or 2-bromoergocriptine. There appeared no competition by testosterone, progesterone or cortisol with estrogen receptors in the mammary gland.
KAGAWA, Y., HONGO, T., NITTA, S., SATO, N., WATANABE, T. and HORIUCHI, T. Reconstruction of the Right Ventricle with Diaphragm Driven Right VentricularWall Device. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 203-214-For the treatment of congenital cardiac anomalies associated with hypoplastic right ventricle such as tricuspid atresia, various methods have been used in clinical and experimental studies. Though these methods were effective, there remained still some problems such as postoperative right heart failure or restriction of indications for the cases associated with high pulmonary vascular resistance. In order to solve these problems, diaphragm driven right ventricular wall device (RVWD) was newly developed. The device is composed of hard outer housing and soft diaphragm made of polyurethane and actuated pneumatically triggered to R wave of ECG or left ventricular pressure. Characteristics of RVWD were checked using a mock circulation to find optimal driving condition for animal experiments. Acute experiments were carried out using 15 mongrel dogs. Right ventricular free wall was excised as wide as possible under hypothermic inflow occlusion and RVWD was sutured to the edges of right ventriculotomy. Hemodynamics were investigated with and without driving of RVWD for 6 to 24hr. RVWD was able to maintain hemodynamics efficiently during immediate postoperative period. After body temperature and cardiac function returned to normal, systemic circulation could be maintained without driving of RVWD. From the results of this study, possibility of surgical correction of hypoplastic right ventricle using RVWD was presumed.
ASAKI, S. Endoscopical Polypectomy Using High Frequency Current: Double-Snare Method of Polypectomy for Prevention of Incidental Bleeding andPerforation. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 215-218-The author developed a double-snare method of high-frequency-current-applied endoscopical polypectomy (double-snare polypectomy, for short). Since 1975 the double-snare polypectomy was applied to 40 gastric polyps (36 patients), over 15mm in the largest diameter. 7 massively hemorrhaged cases after polypectomy were treated by hemostatic methods, such as electrocoagulation and pure ethanol injection. This method was warranted as a reliable formula for a risk-less resection of large polyps without causing persistent major bleeding or fateful perforation.-polyp; stomach; endoscopic polypectomy; double-snare method; high frequency current
TAKADA, G., ONODERA, H. and TADA, K. Delivery of Fungal β-Galactosidaseto Rat Brain by Means of Liposomes. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 219-229-A significant increase in β-galactosidase activity was observed in the brain of rats 1hr after an intravenous injection of liposomes containing β-galactosidase purified from Aspergillus oryzae. The increased activity was proved to have features of the fungal enzyme by differentiating it from rat's native β-galactosidase in both heat stability and immunochemical studies. Blood content of rat brain tissue under the experimental conditions employed was estimated as 0.83% (v/w) from an infusion experiment of 131I-labeled human serum albumin. The net uptake of fungal β-galactosidase by rat brain was calculated as equal to 10μg protein of the fungal enzyme or 0.31% of the injected dose/g tissue, which gave rise to 4.4-fold net increase in enzyme activity above control levels. The experiments clearly demonstrated that liposome-entrapped fungal enzyme was allowed to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and to gain access to rat brain, suggesting liposomes as an effective carrier for exogenous enzyme delivering to the central nervous system of patient with inherited lysosomal storage diseases.
NISHIZAWA, O., TAKADA, H., SAKAMOTO, F., MATSUO, S., NOTO, H., KIZU, N. HARADA, T. and TSUCHIDA, S. Combined Urodynamic and UltrasonicTechniques: A New Diagnostic Method for the Lower Urinary Tract. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 231-232-A new diagnostic method for the morphological and functional evaluation of lower urinary tract disorders-combined urodynamic and ultrasonic techniques-is described. Transrectal longitudinal ultrasonography is used instead of radiographic cystourethrography as the imaging modality. Our procedure is valuable for the evaluation of lower urinary tract dysfunction.
TSUCHIDA, S., MORITA, T. and KONDO, S. A New in Vivo Method of Recordingof the Electrical Activities of the Renal Pelvis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1982, 136 (2), 233-234-A new method is described which enables in vivo recording of electromyogram from the pelvicalyceal border (PC border) of the canine renal pelvis. At the PC border slow rising-potentials with constant intervals are recorded throughout the normo-uretic stage and the diuretic stage. The wave form of the discharge is very similar to that of the pacemaker potential obtained by the previous in vitro study.