The aim of the present study was to establish a new method to evaluate the right ventricular dimensions and volume. Biplane right ventriculography of steep left anterior oblique view (LAO) and right anterior oblique view perpendicular to LAO were performed in 32 patients. The right ventricular volume and ejection fraction calculated from the three axial dimensions of the right ventricular cavity (the septum-free wall dimension, the anterior-posterior dimension, and either the long axis dimension or the tricuspid valve-apex dimension at end-diastole and end-systole) were well correlated to those from Simpson's method. In conclusion, we developed a new method for estimating right ventricular dimensions and volume.
The human Fc fragments of immunoglobulin E (IgE-Fc) expressed in the mammalian COS cells, those mainly consisting of Cε3-Cε4 chains with or without Cys-328 known to be responsible for interchain disulfide bonding, were secreted into the culture medium directed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase (SUC2) signal sequence (SUC2/Ig2 or SUC2/Ig, respectively) as well as by the human interleukin 2 receptor α chain signal sequence (IL2R/Ig2 or IL2R/Ig, respectively). For the binding activity to the human soluble α chain of high affinity receptor for IgE, IgE-Fc with Cys328, SUC2/Ig2 and IL2R/Ig2, were active but had smaller activity than native IgE. By comparison IgE-Fc without Cys328, SUC2/Ig and IL2R/Ig, showed lower activity than SUC2/Ig2 and IL2R/ Ig2. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed both SUC2/Ig and SUC2/Ig2 had molecular weights (MrS) and degrees of glycosylation similar to IL2R/Ig and IL2R/Ig2, respectively. These results suggested that in mammalian cells the SUC2 signal sequence was functional in directing the heterologous multimeric proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in secretion of the active proteins. This finding might show merits on heterologous protein secretion systems.
Perikaryal myelin sheaths on statoacoustic ganglion cells in 3-day-old chicks were studied by electron microscopy. The fixation method with a high-concentrated warm fixative helped in successful demonstrations of perikaryal myelin structures. The sheaths were composed of loose and compact myelin mixed by various arrangements. Twentyseven percents of perikarya were entirely encircled by compact myelin, 71% were partly wrapped by compact myelin, and 2% were wrapped by just loose myelin. The perikaryal myelin was composed of 3 to 16 layers of loose and compact lamellae, whereas the axonal myelin of 10 to 28 of compact lamellae. Since no unmyelinated perikarya, which are covered by a single layer of Schwann cell cytoplasm, were detected, it is suggested that the perikaryal myelination on all the ganglion cells has started before 3 days after hatching.
To clarify the influence of age on clinical and histologic features, young women with ovarian epithelial borderline tumors and carcinomas were analyzed. A retrospective review of 93 patients with ovarian common epithelial borderline tumors and carcinomas was performed. Twenty-one of 93 patients (22.6%) were under age 40. Predominant symptoms in young patients were abdominal pain or abdominal distention, but 4 (19%) patients had no symptom. Eleven (11/21; 52.4%) patients were nulliparous and six patients received conservative surgery to preserve fertility. The rate of histologic type and stage did not significantly differ between the young and older groups. Although overall survival between young and older patients did not significantly differ, the survival of young patients with advanced disease (stage III and IV) was significantly worse than in older patients with advanced disease (p<0.05).
We retrospectively reviewed data on high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) settings and pulmonary function in 14 extremely low birth weight infants who were treated with piston-type HFOV immediately after birth for severe respiratory distress to investigate the cause of pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) associated with HFOV. PIE developed a mean of 23 hr after the initiation of HFOV in 6 infants. Eight infants did not develop PIE and served as the control group. The lowest mean airway pressure (MAP) in the PIE group, which occurred immediately before disease onset was 5.2 cm H2O. The lowest MAP in the control group was 7.5 cm H2O (p<0.01), which occurred immediately before the ventilatory mode was changed from HFOV to conventional mechanical ventilation for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Respiratory system compliance (Crs) 12 hr after birth was below normal in both groups and there was no significant difference between groups. These results suggest that an unusually low MAP may contribute to PIE during piston-type HFOV in the presence of low Crs. It is therefore important to maintain a high MAP during HFOV until pulmonary compliance becomes normal.
Cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent immunosuppressant, is known to have various effects on the endocrine system, including the pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex, the testes, and the pancreatic islets. In this study, the effects of CsA on prolactin (PRL) synthesis and release were investigated in GH3 cells, a clonal strain of rat pituitary tumor. After incubation of confluent GH3 cells with various concentrations of CsA for 24 hr, the PRL content of the media decreased in a dose-dependent manner: by 28.5% with 100 ng/ml CsA (p<0.01); and 45.8% with 2,000 ng/ml CsA (p<0.001), compared with control. However, no significant change was observed in the intracellular PRL content. After removal of CsA from the medium, G3H cells fully recovered normal secretory activity within 24-48 hr, thus indicating that the inhibitory effect of CsA on PRL secretion was reversible. Northern blot analysis revealed a decrease in the PRL mRNA level in cells treated with CsA. In conclusion, these data suggest that CsA inhibits PRL secretion by reducing the rate of biosynthesis. A possible site of action is on PRL gene expression at the level of mRNA transcription.
This study was designed to investigate a possible role for intracellular cyclic AMP involved in agonist-induced changes in electrical activity of smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens. The action of dibutyryl adenosine 3', 5'-phosphate (dibutyryl cyclic AMP) (up to 30 μM) was examined in current- and voltage-clamp, using the double sucrose gap method. Under current-clamp, dibutyryl cyclic AMP clearly shortens the duration of action potential by hastening the rates of depolarization and of repolarization and increases the peak amplitude. Under voltage-clamp, dibutyryl cyclic AMP enhances the maximum ICa by increasing the conductance (ga), but without affecting its reversal potential (Ea) and kinetics in preparations in normal Krebs solution as well as in preparations in tetraethylammonium chloride loading solution. In normal Krebs solution, dibutyryl cyclic AMP also enhances the peak (Ib') and late outward K+ currents (Ib) by increasing the conductances (gb') and (gb), respectively. These results indicate that in vas deferens smooth muscle intracellular cyclic AMP may be of functional significance for activation of voltage-dependent peak and late IK channels as well as activation of voltage-dependent ICa channel.
Calcified deposits of tumoral calcinosis from a 77-year-old Japanese woman were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction method. SEM revealed conglomerates of granular calcified materials 0.2 to 0.5 μm in size. X-ray diffraction method revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite that was highly crystallized. No other components such as calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate were detected.