The accuracy of estimation of magnesium in plasma and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was discussed. The normal range of plasma magnesium by this method was 1.63-2.13mg/100ml. Among 23 hyperthyroid patients, 15 subjects were hypomagnesemic. The plasma magnesium levels in 4 hypothyroid patients were within the normal range but always higher than those in hyperthyroid patients. A significant inverse relationship was noted between plasma magnesium concentrations and parameters of thyroid function. Plasma magnesium concen-trations increased in hyperthyroid patients and decreased in hypothyroid patients during therapy. A significant positive relationship was noted between magnesium clearance and parameters of thyroid function. During the therapy, the changes in magne-sium clearance did not always correspond to the changes in plasma magnesium con-centration or parameters of thyroid function. On the contray, the changes in CMg/CNa ratio corresponded to the changes in plasma magnesium concentration or parameters of thyroid function. This may suggest that magnesium and sodium share a common pathway in the renal tubule and are reabsorbed competitively. A negative correlation was noted between plasma protein concentration and mangesium clearance. From these results, the main cause of abnormality in plasma magnesium concentration in thyroid dysfunction seems to be the changes in magnesium clearance by the influence of thyroid hormone. Magnesium clearance might be influenced, in part, by the changes in plasma protein concentration.
Congenital afibrinogenemia was first reported in 1920 by Rabe and Salomon. In Japan, since Saito and Asai reported the first case in 1954, 14 cases have been reported so far. The authors found the 10th case and made examinations on clot-ting factors and comparative evaluations on 14 cases reported in Japan. Immunological assay for fibrinogen was performed on 5 out of 14 cases. In our own case, fibrinogen was not demonstrated even by Immunological test. Accelerated fibrinolytic activities are considered to be a cause of afibrinogenemia. Our case is the first one in which remarkably decreased fibrinolvtic activities were demonstrated, and this finding is of interest in relation to deficient clotting ability of blood in this disease.
Effects of strychnine on intraretinal inhibition were investigated by recording unitary discharges from the optic tract fibers. Units were classed as on, off and on-off according to their discharge patterns in response to diffuse illumination of the retina. Strychnine enhanced the firing rate of spontaneous discharge in the dark. ‘On’ inhibition of an off unit was greatly suppressed by strychnine, whereas ‘off’ inhibition of an on unit was not affected to an appreciable extent. The latter, however, was suppressed by picrotoxin. This difference was discussed in the light of the recent concept of inhibitory mechanisms and also of morphological findings on synapses in the inner plexiform layer.
Non-neoplastie thyroid follicle inclusions were found in four cervical lymph nodes and the cervical adipose tissue in a 29-year-old Japanese male who died of acute myelogenous leukemia. Microscopic study of several serial sections of the whole thyroid gland were negative for any neoplastic lesion. The presence of thyroid follicles in the cervical lymph nodes has been explained by theories of embryological displacement, metastatic carcinoma and benign metastasis (thyroidosis). The author strongly suggests the need for a re-evaluation of the embryological relationships between developing cervical lymphatic and thyroid tissues as well as thorough systematic anatomic and pathological studies of the cervical lymph nodes and the thyroid gland proper.
Plasma lactate in tumor-bearing rats increased progressively after inoculation with tumor cells. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were found increased in tumor-bearing rats, especially in cases of liver metastasis. The similarity between the LDH isozyme patterns of the plasma in tumor-bearing rats and those of the ascites tumor cells suggested that the tumor cells contributed greatly to the increase in plasma LDH of these animals. Michaelis constants for pyruvate of rat tissues and ascites tumor cells were closely related to the iso-zyme patterns.
A method for histochemieal demonstration of glycogen synthetase activity in the human epidermis was examined. For microscopically discerning glycogen synthetase reaction at the tissue site, a concentration of uridine diphosphate glucose about 4 times that in the Takeuchi and. Glenner's substrate medium was required. With the increase of glucose-6-phosphate concentration, the incubation time necessary for the appearance of reaction was shortened. This effect was most prominent at pH 9.0. Based on these results, the optimum composition of the substrate medium was described.
A method of separation and identification of proteases by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane is presented. Proteases were separated by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane. The membrane was layered onto a substrate-agar plate and incubated. The proteolysis areas were distinguished from the non-digested back-ground by direct observation or by protein staining. The electrophoretic localization of proteases tested were as follows: Trypsin (×3 crystallized): post-γ globulin fraction (1) Trypsin (commercial): α-2, β and post-γ globulin fractions (3) Chymotrypsin: post-γ globulin fraction (1) Bromelain: post-γ globulin fraction (1) Pronase: post-γ globulin fractions (3) Urokinase: diffuse digestion between α-2 and post-β globulin fractions (3) Plasminogen in serum: α-2 and β globulin fractions (2) Figures in parentheses indicate the number of lysis area.
The basophils in human chronic myelogenous leukemia with basophilia were observed by the electron microscope after fixation with aldehyde and osmium double fixatives. The nucleus and the evtoplasmic component were almost equal in appearance to those of the neutrophils or the eosinophils except for basophilic granules. A few mitochondria of round shape were seen. The Golgi component was found usually poorly developed but cisternal component was sometimes recognized. The granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulums were poorly developed. The fibrils were often recognized. There were many granules in cytoplasm. Their diameters reached 1.5μ and they had limiting membranes. The contents of the granules were not the same. The granules with homogeneous contents were rather few. Most of the granules contained material looking like a fibrillar structure composed of fine particles of different sizes, These granules had a tendency to break and the membrane often disappeared. These broken vacuoles fused with each other and the cells sometimes assumed watery appearance. This is not attributed to aa mere artefact in the course of fixation, but is interpreted as the morphological expression of a certain functional state of basophils.
Young C57BL mice were irradiated with a leukemogenic dose of x-rays in four fractions with an interval of seven days. Differential cell count was carried out in the course of tumor development on the cellular suspension of the thymus or lymph nodes. The normal differentiation of large lymphocytes to small lympho-cytes was recognized always after each irradiation. The accumulation of blast cells due to maturation arrest was not seen in the whole period of regeneration. The population of neoplastic cells appeared among normal lymphocytes as early as 14 days after the fourth irradiation. The rate of tumor cell induction at the time of irradiation was 1×10-4 to 1_??_10-5/R in the blasts cells. The population of self-replicating cells increased exponentially with the doubling time of 7.3 days and constituted a large thymoma. In the lymph nodes, numerous foci of unusual proliferation of blast cells without differentiation were observed in the cortex, but further development of the foci was suppressed. The immunological in-sufficiency in the thymus may be responsible for the development of neoplastic cells in the organ. Extreme lymphopenia for a long period may also be associated with tumor cell development.