The upper urinary tracts in twenty-nine pregnant women in later months of pregnancy were examined by excretory urography. The dilatation of the renal pelvis and ureter was far more frequently observed on the right side than on the left. In the majority of cases the position of the right renal pelvis was found to be abnormal; not rarely, the position of the right renal pelvis was higher than the left renal pelvis. From the present study, it was concluded that the dilatation of the right upper urinary tract in pregnant women is primarily caused by the mechanical factor of the dextro-rotated gravid uterus and secondarily by the endocrine function of the placenta.
The first case reported in Japan of congenital steatosis of the liver was described. In order to try to elucidate the pathogenesis of this particular disorder, the analysis of the chemical composition, the determination of the enzyme activities and the investigation of the activity of glycolysis, glycogenesis and lipogenesis by means of isotope were carried out on the liver specimens obtained from the patient. The results obtained were as follows: - 1. The affected liver contained remarkably larger amount of fat and cholesterol. The glycogen content was not higher in weight % of the liver but was higher on protein basis of the liver. There was no structual abnormality of glycogen isolated from the affected liver. 2. In the affected liver, the specific activities of aldolase, phosphoglucomutase and phosphorylase were within normal limits, the specific activity of lactic dehydrogenase was higher, and that of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was remarkably higher. The activity of glucose-6-phosphatase, however, was definitely decreased in the affected liver. 3. Experimental results with manometric and isotopic procedures demonstrated that glycolysis seemed to be activated, glycogenesis to be normal and lipogenesis from glucose to be highly activated.
1. Isolated smooth muscle strip from rabbit intestine was used for measuring the isometric tension to observe the effect of adrenaline on the depolarized smooth muscle. 2. Under normal condition, adrenaline causes the relaxation, but by increasing the concentration of K in Krebs solution, this relaxing effect became gradually less, until the effect of adrenaline was reverse. This reversal was obtained only in a narrow range of K concentration. 3. In solution of higher concentration of K, adrenaline caused the relaxation again. 4. Similar stimulant action of adrenaline was observed in muscle strip which has been immersed in NaBr-, TEACl-, LiCl- or choline-Krebs solutions. 5. It is suggested from these results that, as far as mechanical response of smooth muscle is concerned, adrenaline has a single action and the direction of response to adrenaline is determined by the functional condition of the muscle cell membrane. This work was aided by the Grant (GA BMR 5693) from the Rockefeller Foundation to one of the authors (T. Suzuki).
We determined the protein-bound sialic acid and the total protein contents in human cerebrospinal fluid in various mental disorders. The results are summarized as follows: 1) In the control group, the sialic acid content averaged 0.218±0.048 mg% and the ratio of sialic acid (mg%) against total protein (‰) was 109 to 100. 2) In the schizophrenic subjects, the sialic acid content averaged 0.267±0.081 mg%, which had a significant difference at 2 per cent level from that in the control group. The ratio of sialic acid against total protein was 92.1 to 100. 3) In depression, the sialic acid content averaged 0.278±0.067 mg%, which had a significant difference at 10 per cent level of significance. The ratio of sialic acid against total protein was 74.5 to 100. In mania, the ratio was much less (49.6 to 100), it is suggested that there is a tendency to an increase of sialic acid and also a respectable unbalance in the mechanism of production of sialic acid and protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. 4) In chronic alcoholism, the sialic acid content averaged 0.321±0.043 mg%, which had a significant difference with a high reliability. The ratio of sialic acid against total protein was 107 to 100, which was the same as that in the control group. 5) In the other brain organic diseases, the sialic acid concentration was found heightened.
The effect of vitamin and milk on the dark adaptation of children was examined. The impaired dark adaptation of most of the children examined could be improved remarkably by the supplement of ascorbic acid, vitamin A and B and cured completely by drinking of milk together with the vitamins.
The cardiovascular responses to adequate stimuli were studied in 34 normal subjects and 24 hypertensive patients, using respiration and change in posture as stimuli. Hypertensive patients showed a small and nearly constant value of respiratory arrhythmia independent of the systolic blood pressure and no correlation was found between them, but in normal subjects the higher the systolic blood pressure, the smaller the respiratory arrhythmia. The variation coefficient of cardiac rate was smaller in hypertensive patients than in normal subjects, but the variation coefficient of blood pressure was greater in hypertensive patients than in normal subjects. According to our new representation both normal subjects and hypertensive patients were almost all included in I or II type, but only 2 cases of malignant hypertensive patients in IV type. The authors wish to express their thanks to Prof. T. Torikai for his advice and encouragement.
The evoked potentials recorded from the surface of the head by photic stimulation were shown to change according to the stage of sleep. During sleep the culmination times of the evoked potentials were prolonged. Having been induced to sleep the 3rd positive wave increased in amplitude, but decreased again in deep sleep. The 4th negative wave, at first, decreased in amplitude, but in the proceeding stages it developed to the dominant component covering the 6th negative wave and became larger than in arousal. In most cases, the stage of sleep determined by the pattern of the evoked potentials coincided with the stage determined by the pattern of the spontaneous activity. During sleep the evoked potentials was localized on the occiput, but the secondary response as arousal reaction was widely distributed from forehead to occiput and showed the maximum amplitude on the parietal area. The authors express their gratitude to prof. K. Motokawa, Department of Physiology, Tohoku University, for his criticism and advice.
1. Sodium excretion of rats was increased by the supplement of riboflavin, choline, pantothenic acid or vitamin A to the diet. 2. Pantothenic acid concentration in the liver of rats was higher in the vitamin supplemented group than in the liver of those unsupplemented. 3. Authors have assumed that one of the preventive effects of the vitamins against the elevation of blood pressure would be the facilitating action of these vitamins on the excretion of sodium.
1. Isolated taenia coli of guinea pig was used for recording the spontaneous spike discharge intracellularly. 2. Results obtained from the present experiments indicate that the interaction mechanism must be existent between adjacent cells and by this mechanism, excitation can pass from cell to cell. 3. This mechanism of interaction is easily destroyed (this condition is the dissociation), but restored again. 4. The feature of the spike patterns before and after dissociation could be clearly represented in a diagram (mean interval-standard error diagram).