By seven successive washing of milled rice by water 90% of thiamine, 60% of pantothenic acid, 50% of riboflavin and 40% of choline were lost. Rats fed with diet containing washed rice and an appreciable amount of thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and niacin showed a considerable decrease in growth rate and urinary sodium output and elevated blood pressure in comparison with those fed with diet containing unwashed rice. Supplement of pantothenic acid to the washed rice improved the growth, increased the sodium excretion and inhibited the elevation of blood pressure. The reason for frequent occurrences of instances of hypertension among people consuming rice diet was discussed.
Three cases of anaplastic chromophobe carcinoma simulating nasopharyngeal tumor have been reported. Two of them were patients under twenty year old, while the other was 41. The tumors showed no sign of endocrine function and diabetes insipidus and cachexia appeared only in the final stages in two cases. In these two cases the pituitary gland was surrounded and partially involved by the tumor and it was quite difficult to be sure whether the tumor was of normal pituitary origin or of ectopic origin. The remaining one had an almost normal pituitary gland located at a distance from the tumor which was considered to be an anaplastic chromophobe carcinoma arising in ectopic nasopharyngeal pituitary. The gross and microscopic characteristics of these tumors were discussed.
The following results were obtained by the estimation of fibrinolysis in plasma, proteolytic activity of euglobulin fraction and trypsin inhibitor. 1. Plasma did not always evidence fibrinolysis in the presence of high euglobulin activity. Nor did it evidence failure of fibrinolysis in the presence of low euglobulin activity. 2. Trypsin inhibitor was more closely related to the occurrence of fibrinolysis in plasma than the proteolytic activity of euglobulin fraction. 3. The sera showed fibrinolysis by the diluted plasma clot method when the PIR values were more than 1.0. Contrariwise, no fibrinolysis occurred when PIR values were less than 1.0.
As one of the objects of this study was the determination of the content of bound forms of Pa A in various Japanese foods, close attention was paid to the total pantethine content in the present study. The total pantethine content was estimated to be high in meats and some fishes, and of the low-priced food articles easily procurable in Japan, sweet potato, “Natto”, sardine, oyster, leek and garlic were found to be rich in total pantethine. The author expresses his thanks to Prof. E. Takahashi and Dr. S. Kamiyama who have given kind guidances.
In order to approach an understanding of the mechanism underlying the appearance of the reversal of vasomotor reflexes produced by increase in either strength or frequency of the sciatic nerve stimulation, an attempt has been made to observe vasomotor changes in both nonanesthetized and anesthetized cats. The animals were either prebulbarly decerebrated, or were immobilized with Flaxedil. The vagal nerves were bilaterally severed. 1) In nonanesthetized cats, depression of blood pressure was not elicited by the stimulation of the sciatic nerve. The responses always were elevation of blood pressure at each frequency of 2, 5, 50 and 100/sec. The elevation was obtained even with brief pulse duration of 0.01 msec. 2) After intravenous administration of Nembutal in the dose of 3-5 mg/kg, depression of blood pressure was obtained with weak stimulation at the frequencies of 2 and 5/sec. After intravenous administration of 6-9 mg/kg Nembutal, the depression was elicited with weak stimulation at the frequencies of 50 and 100/sec. Therefore, the reversal of vasomotor reflexes from a depressor to a pressor, was produced by increase in either strength or frequency of stimulation. 3) In nonanesthetized cats, depression of blood pressure was not elicited by the stimulation of the depressor area of Wang and Ranson (1939)8) or of Alexander (1946)1) in the bulbar reticular formation. However, the depression was obtained by the stimulation of this area after intravenous adnmistration of 6-9 mg/kg Nembutal. From these results, it was suggested that anesthetic suppression of the pressor center in the bulbar reticular formation plays an important role in producing the reversal of vasomotor reflexes. The present study has been supported by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and from the Japanese Ministry of Education.
Three volunteers, aged 20, 25 and 27 were experimentally infected with an amniotic culture fluid of fresh influenza B isolate. Two cases, which previously had low HAT antibody against the used virus, did not develop influenza B antibody, suggesting failure of the virus infection. All specimens examined throughout the course of infection by an immunofluorescent technique did not show accumulation of virus antigens. Only one case, which previously had no detectable antibody against influenza, B, developed typical signs and symptoms of influenza. At 48 hours after infection, fluorescent cells were detected by the immunofluorescent technique in the preparations from nasal scrubs. Fluorescent cells were successively found in the nasal scrub specimens up to 120 hours after the infection. Whereas, no fluorescent cells were found in the specimens obtained from nasal washings, throat scrubs, and throat washings throughout the course of infection. First discovery of fluorescent cells was 8 hours ahead the temperature rise and 48 hours ahead the first virus isolation.
The feto-maternal transportation of substances through the villi of human placentae from gravidae of 2 through 10 months of pregnancy and human placenta charged with fat in vitro was electron-microscopically studied. The following conclusions in summary were arrived at: 1) Promontory-like cytoplasmic protrusion apparently partaking in the processes of feto-maternal substance transportation through and secretory function of the placenta, and many microvilli related with pinocytosis were found on the free surface of the layer of syncytiotrophoblasts. The endoplasmic reticula gradually changed into route of substance transportation and the surface of basement membrane of syncytiotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblasts became more and more conspicuously marked by basal infoldings and microvilli-like protrusion, with the advance of months of pregnancy. 2) The basement membrane is usually a homogenous structure formed by aggregation of fine granulous substance and was found to grow thicker with fetal age. It showed soundly morphological changes and included some matter indicative of substance transportation through it. 3) The stromal collagenous fibers increased both in number and in size with progress of pregnancy and were found to form a part of fluid route through the stroma. 4) The fetal capillaries had a basement membrane, their lumen enlarged and their endothelium thined from month to month. Here, the main substance transportation was apparently effected through pinocytosis. 5) Findings were obtained that fat particles are taken in by syncytiotrophoblasts from through pinocytosis. A part of the fat particles pass into cytotrophoblasts from syncytiotrophoblasts. The fat particles reaching the basement membrane beneath the chorionic epithelium permeate the membrane in diffuse form, but a part of them were seen going through the membrane in unchanged particle shape. 6) The fat transportation in stroma was found mainly passing through the cytoplasm of stroma cells from the chorionic villus side to the fetal capillary side. Besides, some fat particles were found extracellularly. Fat taken up by the perivasei lar pericytes was observed slowly passing over into the endothelial cells of the fetal-side capillaries, and through the cells finally to flow into the capillary blood through ruptures in the cell membrane.