Eight-month-old male twins of Down's syndrome were found to have the aneuploid number of 47 chromosomes. The karyotype analysis revealed the presence of trisomy G. Detailed testing of blood groups were performed, all factors tested being found to be identical in twins. Analyses of the palm and sole prints of the twins were also compatible with their monozygosity.
Human chorionic gonadotropin was extracted from serum and chorionic tissue of the first and third trimester. Their stability of LH activity to neuraminidase incubation and sialic acid content were studied. Biological activity was determined by OAAD method. The data were compared with those of NIH-LH and urinary HCG. Gonadotropins which were extracted from chorionic tissue and serum lost about 80% of their biological activity when incubated for two hours with neuraminidase. An exception was the extract of the third trimester's chorionic tissue which showed significantly large residual activity. NIH-LH was stable against neuraminidase treatment and only 10% loss of biological activity was observed after two hours incubation. On the other hand, the loss of HCG's biological activity was approximately 75% after one hour and purified HCG (5917IU/mg) was inactivated 90% within one hour. Sialic acid content of extracts obtained from chorionic tissue and serum were in a range of 0.3-0.4%, but the extract of the third trimester's chorionic tissue was known to have significantly low sialic acid. NIH-LH-S14 had 1.1% of sialic acid, urinary HCG had 0.69% and purified HCG had 5.7%.
Epidemiological, clinical and serological studies on the epidemic mumps were carried out in 47 infants in Central Babies Home, Sapporo. Furthermore by utilizing fluorescent antibody tests the influence of transplacental maternal antibodies on mumps infection in infants was studied. The results obtained were as follows: 1) An epidemic of mumps was found to occur even in infants around 1 year of age, when the proportion of susceptibles in the population was high and when they were in close contact with each other. 2) Even the small amount of transplacental maternal antibodies, which were undetectable by hemagglutination inhibition or neutralizing tests, but detecta-ble only by fluorescent antibody tests, might protect mumps infection in infancy. 3) Fluorescent antibody tests were considered to be useful to determine whether the detected antibodies were due to natural mumps infection or of maternal origin: IgM mumps fluorescent antibody was specifically detected in the sera of those who received recent infection of mumps.
Because the kidneys are bilateral and movable organs which often show abnormalities in their blood vessels, urine passways and parenchymatous components, and because changes in position of the patient may cause changes in the positional relations of those systems, it follows that simultaneous bilateral renal arteriography by use of the aortographic technique is preferable to the routine selective renal arteriography and that a devise should be made of taking pictures for comparison of the patient both in the standing and in the supine position. It is demonstrated in this paper that in applying such an improved technique to 33 cases of movable kidneys the movement of the kidneys is accompanied with positional changes in their blood vessels and urine passways and, in some cases, with changes in their shapes.
The enterochromaffin cells (Ec-cells) in the normal and pathological antral mucosa of the human stomach were examined. It was clarified that the Ec-cells are observed only in the mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, and never in the normal mucosa. We tentatively classified the Ec-cells into two types: Ec-I-cells and Ec-II-cells. The specific granules in the Ec-I-cells are polymorphous and contain a dense core enclosed by a limiting membrane which fits either tightly or loosely. The Ec-II-cells have electron dense and polymorphous granules but do not contain a dense core in the limiting membrane. The ratio of Ec-I-cells to Ec-II-cells in the antral mucosa with intestinal metaplasia seems to be almost equal in gastric ulcer but smaller in gastric cancer. We propose the hypothesis that the endocrine cells in antral mucosa are changed into intestinal types of endocrine cells in the course of development of the intestinal metaplasia.
A histometrical method to estimate the medial strength of the pulmonary artery was applied to the cases of sudden death in young and apparently healthy subjects and disclosed medial hypertrophy. Latent pulmonary hypertension was assumed in these cases from the histometrical results, and the development of shock was attributed to acute reduction of blood flow into the left ventricle of the heart. The cases were associated with adrenocortical atrophy and usually with excessive growth of lymphoid tissues and persistent thymus. Possible relations of adrenocortical atrophy and pulmonary hypertension was discussed.
Four cases of the primary esophageal carcinoma with large submucosal tumor in the gastric Cardia which was recognized radiographically as peculiar lesion with a spherical appearance are presented. Histological examinations disclosed that the submucosal tumor is derived from direct extension of the esophageal carcinoma, regardless of its size, downward into the gastric cardia through either the submucosa or the muscularis. The submucosal tumor further protrudes to the cardial lumen, forms small ulcers on the surface covered with the mucous membrane, and terminates in large central ulceration. The patients having the ulcerated submucosal tumor are characterized by gradually increasing anemia.
For quick and precise measurements of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction time, an AV interval-graph was devised. Atrial and ventricular action potentials in response to right atrial stimulation were picked up differentially. After being mixed, these potentials were reshaped to rectangular pulses by a monostable circuit and finally fed to the Z-axis of a cathode-ray oscilloscope as brightening pulses. The beam of the oscilloscope was swept synchronously with each stimulus pulse and the intensity was adjusted so that bright spots emerged on the oscilloscope screen only when brightening pulses were fed to the Z-axis. With this setup each sweep consisted of an initial spot marking the stimulus artefact followed by two spots corresponding to onset of atrial and ventricular activity so that latency of atrial excitation and AV conduction time could be measured directly.
The present paper deals with radioactive iodination of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in chloroform. In the procedure, FITC in phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 was added to radioactive iodine at molecular ratio 1:1.5 or more. Some derivatives containing various numbers of iodine were prepared at the reaction in accordance with the molecular ratio. Starch-gel electrophoresis, thin layer chromatography, spectrophotometric analysis, infrared spectra, elementary analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance of the products showed that several derivatives incorporated with various numbers of iodine were synthesized and that isothiocyanate group of most of the derivatives was not separated at the reaction.
No collateral flow in dog hang was observed between two distant holes on the pleural surface with the bronchus closed at its bronchiolar level by silicon rubber, which was considered to be not in favor of the assumption that Kohn's pore was the major pathway for collateral ventilation.