NAGATAKE, T. Clinical Significance of Respiratory Infection Caused byBranhamella catarrhalis with Special Reference to β-Lactamase Producing Strains. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 1-13-I found the recent increase during the past eight years of the incidence of respiratory infections caused by Branhamella catarrhalis. Namely, I experienced 74 cases (93 episodes) of the respiratory infections; 5 pneumonia, 14 acute bronchitis, 1 lung abscess, 36 chronic bronchitis, 7 chronic bronchiolitis, 21 bronchiectasis and 9 chronic pulmonary mphysema with infection. In 65 of 93 infectious episodes, Branhamella catarrhalis was isolated as a pure culture and in 28 episodes it was associated with other organisms, 13 Haemophilus influenzae etc. In all the cases, a positive correlation was found between beneficial clinical results and disappearance of the organism from the sputum. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the representative β-lactam and other antibiotics against 104 strains were determined. All of these strains were obtained during last four years from 1980 to 1983 from the purulent sputa as the main pathogen. Annualy, this organism has significantly acquired resistance to β-lactams. By 1983, 74% of Branhamella catarrhalis isolated from the purulent sputa became a β-lactamase producers. And the failure cases of Branhamella catarrhalis infections treated with β-lactams have increased during the last two years. These results have clearly showed also the importance of Branhamella catarrhalis as the common pathogen for respiratory organ.
OHGAWARA, H., TASAKA, Y., MACHIYAMA, E., SAKURAI, Y. and HIRATA, Y. AStudy of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion from Adult Rat Pancreatic MonolayerIslets. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 15-20-The present study confirms and extends previous observations that whole pancreatic islets form a monolayer culture in vitro. Our technique, using a medium containing 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), clearly demonstrated enzymatic disruption of the islets and cellular organization of isolated pancreatic islets. Insulin or glucagon secretion of monolayer culture was measured during incubation in a medium containing 5.5mM D-glucose, then in 16.7mM D-glucose, and finally in a combination of 16.7 mM D-glucose and IBMX, or of low glucose and 20mM L-arginine. Clearly, such a technique might permit the recovery of collagenase-isolated pancreatic islets during the culture period and also an increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion and arginine stimulated glucagon secretion.
HARABUCHI, Y., YAMANAKA, N. and KATAURA, A. ImmunohistologicalIdentification of B Cell Differentiation in Human Tonsillar Follicles by UsingMonoclonal Antibodies. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 21-31-Using immunoperoxidase technique and various monoclonal antibodies, B1, B2, OKT9, OKT10 and Leu-7, we investigated B cell differentiation in the tonsillar follicle. Mantle zone was stained with B1 intensely and B2 faintly. In contrast, germinal center was stained with B1, OKT10 and OKT9, and more intensely with B2. In the intermediate part of the germinal center some large cells were stained with OKT10. With OKT9 antibody, most of cells in the lymphoepithelial symbiosis and some large dendritic cells considered to be tingible body macropharges or dendritic reticulum cells in the germinal center were intensely stained. Leu-7 positive cells were localized mainly in the intermediate part of the germinal center. Stages of B cell differentiation in the tonsillar follicle were discussed, considering these results.
FUKUSHI, Y. and WAKUI, M. Inhibitory Effect of Methylmercuric Chloride on theContraction Mediated by Muscarinic Receptor of Intestinal Smooth Muscle of theGuinea-Pig. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 33-41-Effects of methylmercuric chloride (MMC) on the contractile responses to nerve and drug stimulation in the guinea-pig taenia coli were examined. MMC (25-50μM) severely reduced both responses to electrical and pharmacological (nicotine) stimulation of cholinergic nerves without affecting the responses to direct stimulation of muscles. MMC also suppressed markedly the response to actylcholine (ACh), but did not change the maximum response to ACh. Dose-inhibition curve for MMC on the response to nerve stimulation was quite similar to that on the response to externally applied ACh. MMC only at a high concentration slightly reduced the response to histamine. MMC depolarized the membrane of the smooth muscle by about 8mV with the sucrose-gap method. However, conditioning depolarization of the muscle strip by a 25mM-K solution did not suppress the response to ACh. It was suggested that MMC-induced inhibition of the responses of the guinea-pig taenia coli to cholinergic nerve stimulation resulted from the inactivation of the muscarinic receptor of the smooth muscle.
OKAZAWA, M., KAWAKAMI, M., KATAYAMA, M., TSUBO, S., KONNO, K. and TAKIZAWA, T. The Role of Airflow in Mucous Transport in the Trachea. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 43-45-The role of airflow in mucous transport in the respiratory tract was studied. Seven mongrel dogs were tracheostomised at the caudal end of the neck, and the following two procedures were performed. In procedure (1), a small radiopaque plastic disc was placed on the mucous membrane of the right side wall of the trachea through the tracheostoma, which was then closed to let the dog breathe through the normal respiratory tract. Roentgenograms of the trachea were taken three times at 5min intervals. Procedure (2) was designed to eliminate airflow from around the disc. A canula was placed in the trachea through the tracheostoma to bypass airflow, and the disc was placed on the mucous membrane slightly more proximal than the cannula. The transport rate was 11.1±4.1mm/min (mean±S.D.) in procedure (1) and 5.4±2.7mm/min in procedure (2), which showed a significant difference. The present results seem to indicate an important role of airflow in mucous transport in the trachea.
ISHII, M., MIYAZAKI, Y., OHTA, S., OTSUKI, M. and GOTO, Y. Three-Dimensional Structure of Cytoskeletal System in Human Hepatocytes Viewed byPolyethylene-Glycol-Embedding Method. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 47-63-In an attempt to demonstrate the three-dimensional cytoskeletal system of human hepaocytes, we used two kinds of tissue processing. In one, specimens were immediately fixed with 1% glutaraldehyde, saponin 0.5mg/ml, and tannic acid 2mg/ml (procedure A) and in the other, cytoplasmic matrix and organelles were washed out with a solution containing saponin 0.5mg/ml and 0.15% Triton X-100, followed by fixation with glutaraldehyde (procedure B). The specimens were embedded in polyethylene glycol, sectioned at 500nm, critical point-dried and observed in a TEM. With procedure A, a fine lattice was shown to spread throughout the cytoplasm so as to connect plasma membranes with cytoplasmic organelles, condensed around the bile canaliculi. With procedure B, microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments could be clearly visualized three-dimensionally instead of the lattice structure. At a higher magnification, microvilli of canaliculus were found to contain a core microfilament which were enmeshed in a pericanalicular filament plexus. This plexus looking like the terminal web of intestinal epithelia, encircled the canaliculus and was attached to the zonula adherens. Outside the plexus, intermediate filament network was shown attached to the desmosome. These morphological findings indicated that the cytoskeleton of human hepatocytes is composed of microfilaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments and the fine lattice structure, suggesting that the bile canaliculi could contract in vivo.
HANEDA, K., SATO, S., ISHIZAWA, E. and HORIUCHI, T. The Importance ofColloid Osmotic Pressure during Open Heart Surgery in Infants. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1) 65-71-Fifty-five infants with transposition of the great arteries and with total anomalous pulmonary venous return underwent intracardiac repair under combined surface/perfusion hypothermia and total circulatory arrest in 1975 to 1983. Although cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time is limited when hypothermic circulatory arrest is employed, fluid balance derangement is one of the major postoperative complications. Fluid balance at the end of CPB averaged +299.5ml (+63.4ml/kg) when hemodilution with lactated Ringer's was utilized (Group A). Since colloid osmotic pressure (COP) plays an important role in regulating fluid balance, colloid hemodilution prime (whole blood and plasma) was employed in the last 3 years (Group B). COP and total protein concentration during CPB with colloid prime were maintained at around 19mmHg and 5g/100ml, respectively. In Group B, fluid balance at the end of CPB averaged +81.1ml (+16.3ml/kg) and was significantly less than in Group A (p<0.01). The ICU stay period for survivors in Group B (average 10.9 days) was reduced to half the period in Group A (average 20.6 days) (p<0.05). The mortality rate in Group A was 42%, whereas 23% in Group B. It was concluded that well-maintained COP levels during CPB with colloid hemodilution prime reduced fluid accumulation in the body and made patient care easier following open heart surgery in infants.
MUNAKATA, H., ISEMURA, M., KODAMA, C. and YOSIZAWA Z. Glycosaminoglycansof Porcine Uteri. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 73-75-Glycosaminoglycan fractions were obtained from the pronase digests of the endometrium and myometrium of porcine uteri. Their glycosaminoglycan compositions were determined by the use of specific mucopolysaccharide-degrading enzymes and nitrous acid. It was found that the endometrium contained chondroitin sulfates, dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate and a smaller amount of hyaluronic acid, whereas hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate were the major glycosaminoglycans in the myometrium.
MUNAKATA, H., ISEMURA, M., AIKAWA, J., KODAMA, C. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Changes of Glycosaminoglycan Composition of Uterine Myometrium of RabbitInduced by Female Sex Steroids. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 77-81-Glycosaminoglycan fractions were separately prepared from the myometrium of control, estrogen-treated, and estrogen-progesterone-treated rabbits after digestion with pronase. The glycosaminoglycan composition of each glycosaminoglycan fraction was determined by digestion with specific mucopolysaccharidases and nitrous acid. It was found that foregoing hormones showed no effects on the total glycosaminoglycan content, expressed as mg per g of the delipidated dry tissue. These hormones, however, markedly affected the glycosaminoglycan composition. As compared with the control, the estrogen-treatment decreased the contents of hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate, but increased those of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates. The effect of estrogen on the content of hyaluronic acid was strikingly enhanced by subsequent treatment with progesterone, and those of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates were also enhanced. On the other hand, progesterone abolished effect on the content of dermatan sulfate. Although no effect was observed on the content of heparan sulfate by the estrogen treatment, subsequent treatment with progesterone decreased the content of this glycosaminoglycan.
SATO, T., HOSHI, H. and YOSHINAGA, K. Influence of Diabetes on Arteriosclerosis. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 83-87-The cholesterol contents of the posterior cerebral, subclavian, left common carotid, coronary, superior mesenteric and renal arteries were determined in 6 nondiabetic and 21 diabetic autopsy subjects. The dry weight of the arteries per length was 1.40 to 2.96 times greater in the diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group. The contents of cholesterol in the arteries of the diabetic group were also 1.07 to 4.10 times greater than those of the nondiabetic group. Statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the dry weight of the arteries per length in the nondiabetic group and the contents of cholesterol in the arteries of the nondiabetic group and the diabetic group. Relation between the cholesterol content (x) in the artery of nondiabetic group and ratio (y) of the cholesterol content in the artery of the diabetic group to the nondiabetic group could be expressed by the following regression equation; y=4.303-0.558×(r=-0.843, p<0.002). Most of correlation coefficients between dry weight of each artery, or between the cholesterol content of each artery were low. These results suggest that arteriosclerosis is enhanced in the diabetics, especially in smaller artery where the cholesterol content is low, and arteriosclerosis in the diabetics develops not uniformely.
SATO, T., OGUMA, S. and YOSHINAGA, K. Studies on Amino Acid Compositionof Renal Glomeruli from the Diabetics. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 89-96 -Amino acid analysis was carried out on the acid hydrolyzate of the glomeruli isolated from the kidneys of 19 nondiabetic and 21 diabetic autopsy subjects. The glomeruli isolated from the diabetics were found to have a significant increase in their contents of amino acids such as hydroxyproline, glycine and hydroxylysine, when compared with nondiabetic controls. These changes were detected already in the diabetic cases with no apparent histological change, and were prominent in the glomeruli which had nodular lesion. A linear relationship was evident between the contents of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine in the glomeruli isolated from all 40 subjects studied (y=-9.50+4.88x, r=0.918, p<0.001). The values for the diabetic glomeruli showing diffuse lesion and nodular lesion scattered continuously along the same line. These results suggest that chemical character is almost same in the diabetic glomeruli with either diffuse lesion or nodular lesion.
SUWA, K. and MATSUSHITA, F. Open Loop-Gain of the CO2 VentilatoryControl System. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 97-106-We devised a method of measuring the open-loop gain for CO2-ventilatory feedback control system. The procedure is to gradually increase then decrease the PICO2 while measuring PICO2 and PACO2. We theorized that the gain is ΔPICO2/ΔPACO2-1. We measured this gain in 11 young healthy subjects and found the value to be 3.24, quite different from what had been reported so far by a conventional method. The conventional method calculates the gain as the ratio of the slope of CO2-response curve (s) over that of metabolic hyperbola. Analysis revealed that the conventional method requires an accurate knowledge of s-value at the very operating point. The assumption that the CO2 response curve is linear down to the operating point is probably the source of error. The open-loop gain for CO2 ventilatory control is in the order of 3, from which we may extrapolate that the slope of CO2-response curve at the operating point is much flatter than the normal value of more than 21/min/mmHg.
MUNAKATA, H., ISEMURA, M., KOSAKAI, M., AIKAWA, J. and YOSIZAWA, Z. Evidence for the Occurrence of Lactosaminoglycan in Porcine Kidney. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 107-108-Weakly acidic glycopeptides were obtained from the pronase digest of porcine kidney. The glycopeptides were digested with endo-β-galactosidase. An oligosaccharide fraction was separated from the digest by gel-filtration through Sephadex G-50. The fraction contained galactose and glucosamine in an equimolar ratio.
NISHIZAWA, O., MORIYA, I., FUKUDA, T., MATSUZAKI, A., HARADA, T., TSUCHIDA, S. and VAN MASTRIGT, R. Measurement of Detrusor Contractility inthe Reflex Micturition of the Decerebrate Dog. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 109-110-Detrusor contractility was measured in the reflex micturition of the decerebrate dog, using a computer directly connected to a urodynamic setup. Detrusor contractility parameters seem to be useful for evaluation of bladder function.
SEINO, J., FUKUDA, K., KINOSHITA, Y., SUDO, K., HORIGOME, I., SATO, H., SAITO, T., FURUYAMA, T. and YOSHINAGA, K. A New and Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of C3 Nephritic Factor. Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1985, 147 (1), 111-112-C3 nephritic factor (C3 NeF) was measured by assessing its capacity to form complex with C3 and B using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Incubation of C3 NeF with normal human serum in the presence of MgEGTA resulted in a dose-dependent increase of C3-B-IgG complex. No complex was formed in EDTA. The C3 NeF titer estimated in this way was in good accordance with those reported previously by other indirect methods.