In order to investigate the relationship between cholelithiasis and chronic pancreatitis, biopsy of the pancreas was performed Iat laparotomy in 151 cases with cholelithiasis, and the pancreatic exocrine function test using secretin was applied in 119 out of them. Thirty-one cases with gastric lesion were served as controls. The disturbance of the pancreatic exocrine function was demonstrated in 30 (25%) of the 119 cases; mildly disturbed in 25, moderately in 4, and markedly in one. Of a total of 30 cases with disturbed pancreatic exocrine function, there were 10 cases with decreased volume of the duodenal aspirate, 17 with decreased maximum bicarbonate concentration and 9 with decreased output of amylase. Thus, cases with reduced maximum bicarbonate concentration were most frequently observed. In the majority of the cases with bacteria in bile, with common bile duct dilatation and with hypercholesterolemia, the disturbance of the pancreatic exocrine function of moderate and marked degree was observed. A significant correlation was indicated between the histology of the pancreas and the result of the secretin test in the cases with moderately and markedly disturbed exocrine function. However, no significant difference was demonstrated between the controls and the group of cholelithiasis in morphological features. Only 5 cases (3%) of 151 cases with cholelithiasis were regarded as chronic pancreatitis.
Arterial blood flow of the liver was estimated from the radius Rt of the proper hepatic arteries in autopsy cases of liver cirrhosis and Banti's syndrome. The arterial flow Q was calculated from the equation Q=q•Rnt, where q and n were organ independent constants of the arterial system. The mean arterial flow Q in cirrhotic livers was significantly larger than that in the normal liver, and there was a striking individual difference in Q in cirrhotic livers. A close correlation was proved between the arterial flow Q and the volume of interstitial tissue Vi in cirrhotic livers, whereas the volume of parenchymal tissue Vp was not correlated with the arterial flow. It was concluded that increased supply of arterial blood in liver cirrhosis was due solely to abundant intrahepatic shunts. Compensation of decreased portal flow by increased arterial supply was improbable. In cases of Banti's syndrome, the estimated hepatic arterial flow was entirely in the normal range.
The correlation between mortality rate from stomach cancer and some basic ecological factors such as average temperature, sunshine duration and mineral content of river water is studied on 46 prefectures in Japan. Peculiar geographic distribution of the death rate from stomach cancer in Japan is as already introduced by Segi and others. The river water quality is expressed as the ratio of Ca/SO4. The negative correlation coefficients of male age-adjusted stomach cancer mortality rate with yearly sun-shine duration and with Ca/SO4 ratio of river water were significant, but no correlation was found with yearly average temperature. The meaning of the significant correlation is interpreted as follows. Sulfate and chloride seemed to be aetiological agents to make inflammation - which sometimes develops into ulcer, polypus and cancer - in stomach mucous membrane. On the contrary calcium has antiphlogistic effect, because of its capillary permeability reducing action, which may also prevent lodging of tumour cells in haematogenous metastasis of cancer in microcirculation system. The sunshine duration may be concerned with calcium absorption through its action of vitamin D production on skin.
Walker 256 carcinosarcoma, when transplanted directly into the left kidney, grew well in nearly all rats. After the transplantation, microangiography was performed using 0.2-0.3 ml of Micropaque as a contrast medium which was injected through a PE-50 polyethylene catheter in the left renal artery with a 1 ml syringe under a moderate hand pressure. The angiographic characteristics of the transplanted carcinosarcoma were (1) peculiar dilatation and tortuosity of regional branch vessels to the tumors, and (2) formation of a complete network by many small vessels derived from the main branches. The network covered the entire surface of each tumor.
The analyses of the physical examinations and laboratory findings in 98 cases of subacute thyroiditis studied in our university hospital clinic during 1958 to 1972 are reported. It is characteristic to find that the incidence of this disease was significantly high during “hot” season in this district. The discrepancy of the findings of the PBI and Triosorb test and the relation between 131I uptake, Triosorb test and serum TSH level with regard to the feed-back effect of released thyroid hormone on TSH secretion are discussed.
An infant with hypouricemia due to a defect of 5-phosphoribosyl-l-pyrophosphate synthetase (PRPP synthetase) (E. C. 2. 7. 6. 1. ) was described, who was characterized by severe mental retardation, megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow, an abnormally high level of urinary excretion of orotic acid, an4 decreased levels of uric acid in the plasma and urine.
Pathological and normal human biles were fractionated centrifugally in the presence of salts. Subsequently, coagulat-ing effect on calcium carbonate suspension in water of the resulting fractions was examined. The fractions obtained from pathological bile showed the coagulating effects, whereas the fractions obtained from normal bile did not show any significant effect. Further fractionation on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column of the major fraction (Fr. 2) of pathological bile afforded several subfractions. These subfractions, except SF H2O, showed the coagulating effects. Of these subfractions, one of the major fractions, SF 0.2, showed the strongest coagulating effect. The active fractions were characterized as sulfated glycoproteins by chemical analysis. The present data together with the previous findings suggest that sulfated glycoproteins are responsible for gallstone formation.
Amniotic fluid obtained at 34th week of gestation of the fetus, which was proved to be affected with Lowe's syndrome after delivery, revealed elevated levels of most of free amino acids. This suggests a possibility of antenatal diagnosis of Lowe's syndrome by amino acid analysis of amniotic fluid, although accumulation of data is necessary especial-ly in the early stage of gestation. Amniotic fluid at 19th week of gestation of a fetus at risk which was subsequently confirmed to be a homozygote of phenylke-tonuria showed normal levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine. This indicates the difficulty of prenatal diagnosis of phenylketonuria. Amniotic fluid was obtained at 20th week of gestation from a pregnant woman who had previously borne a child with hyperalaninemia with pyruvicemia due to a deficiency of pyruvate carboxylase in the liver. The concentrations of alanine, pyruvate and lactate in amniotic fluid were found to be within normal range; consequently she was delivered of a healthy girl.
14C-leucine was intraperitoneally injected to pregnant rats with experimental hyperphenylal-aninemia. One hour following the 14C-leucine injection the radioactivities of amino acid fraction and protein fraction of the brain and liver were measured both in maternal and in fetal rats. Little inhibitory effect of an excess of phenylalanine was observed on the uptake of 14C-leucine by the liver or on its incorporation into the liver protein in the maternal rats. The striking inhibition of the uptake and incorporation of 14C-leucine was found in the brain of fetuses from the phenyl-alanine-loaded rats, in contrast with those of controls (p<0.001). In the fetal liver and maternal brain a similar inhibitory effect was also noted (p<0.05). These findings suggest that an excess of phenylalanine in maternal blood transfers across the placenta into the fetus, concentrates in fetal blood, and interferes with protein synthesis in fetal organs, particularly in the brain. These mechanisms may play an important role on the development of mental retardation and microcephaly of fetus in maternal PKU.
Microscopic examination of serially step-sectioned thyroid glands from 102 unselected autopsies of Japanese adults living in northeastern Honshu, Japan, revealed 28.4% occult papillary carcinomas. This is essentially similar to the findings reported in the Japanese living in Hawaii and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission group in Southern Japan. The prevalence of occult thyroid carcinomas in the Japanese appears to be approximately the same in Northern and Southern Japan and in Hawaii.
Using constant pressure perfusion technique of the canine sinus node artery, effects of changing concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions were investigated on the sinoatrial (SA) pacemaker activity. An increase in calcium concentration produced a diphasic chronotropic action; positive at 5-25 mEq/liter but negative above 30 mEq/liter. The positive chronotropic action of calcium was not prevented by pretreatment with reserpine, but partially depressed by beta-adrenergic blocking agents. On the contrary, an infusion of GEDTA, more specific Ca++ chelating agent, slowed the sinus rate and further produced sinus arrhythmia at a higher infusion rate, which was restored to regular sinus rhythm by norepinephrine. Changes in magnesium concentration produced dose-dependently a negative chronotropic effect that was not modified by atropine. Positive chronotropic responses either to calcium or to isoproterenol were significantly depressed by increasing magnesium concentration. Atrial fibrillation induced by acetylcholine was facilitated by increasing calcium concentration but inhibited by administration of either magnesium or GEDTA. Antagonism between calcium and magnesium was demonstrated on the SA node pace-maker activity. It is suggested that calcium and catecholamine facilitate each other the action at the effector sites and that magnesium stabilizes the membrane of the SA node pacemaker against any stimuli of rapid firing.
Folic acid polyglutamate conjugase activity of the rat liver was estimated by Krumdieck and Baugh's radioactive assay method (1970) and found to be not different between rats with or without diphenylhydantoin administra-tion.