The four-element maxwellian model was introduced into the analysis of stress relaxation of the lungs. Solving the equation: P(t)=Pres+Prel•e-t/T, relaxation pressure, relaxation time constant and residual pressure were measured to obtain relaxation compliance, relaxation resistance and residual compliance of the lungs. Furthermore, since the lung tissues were supposed to consist of many maxwellian elements, the pressure was expressed as the equation : P(t)=∫+∞-∞F(log)•e-t/T d log T, where F(logT) was the logarithmic distribution function of the relaxation time constant, and it was demonstrated that F(logT) roughly agreed with the relaxation time constant in the four-element model. The relaxation pressure had a rather remarkable magnitude in healthy subjects in comparison with patients with chronic obstructive lung diseases, and relaxation compliance and relaxation resistance showed no correlation with visco-elastic properties of the lungs.
New equipment has been invented which makes it possible to measure continuously the inspiratory work of breathing using the equation W=∫t0P•V dt. Upon clinical 0 application of this equipment, not only the decreased sensitivity of the respiratory center but also an increase of lung resistance is confirmed to be included in the decrease of the ventilatory response during CO2 inhalation. During CO2 in-halation and during exercise, both the inspiratory and the expiratory responses are sometimes observed, but neither of them has any relationship with the mechanical properties of the lungs. Ventilatory response during exercise distinctly differs from that during an increase of CO2 a decrease of pH, and anoxia and for that reason the inclusion of other components should be considered as a possible stimulus to the respiratory center during exercise.
When a hind-limb muscle nerve or a lumbar dorsal root of rats was stimulated, a fast and well-synchronized wave could be lead off from the appropriate lumbar ventral root and was named ‘the fast synchronous wave’. While this fast synchronous wave resembled in shape and appearance to the cat monosynaptic reflex, it differed in some features from the latter, i.e., rather long latency, absence of post-tetanic potentiation and not being most excitable of all the reflex components. To testify whether the fast synchronous wave is monosynaptic or not, and if monosynaptic, to what causes its characteristics should be attributed, electrophysiological technique and Nauta method were employed. It was concluded that the fast synchronous wave was monosynaptic and its specific features were due to the poor functional connection between primary afferents and motoneurons.
In an attempt to detect an increased bronchial blood flow in man from the earpiece dye-dilution curve, the reliability of three indexes was investigated by comparing them with the values of bronchial blood flow measured from the left atrial dye-dilution curve following dye injection into the aortic root. The first index is obtained from the Cp method, in which the ratio of the peak concentration of early appearing dye-curve due to bronchial circulation to that of the dye-curve of the first circulation. The second is time index for appearance time of the early dye-curve, and the third is CL/Cr as a representation of elevation of the least dye concentration. Cp method showed a good agreement with the bronchial blood flow irrespective of dye injection sites. The last two indexes were both correlated to the bronchial blood flow at a borderline level of significance. It was noteworthy that there was a sharp separation in the second index without any overlapping between cases with and without increased bronchial blood flow. These suggest usefulness of these indexes for clinical assessment of augmented bronchial circulation.
An increase of bronchial blood flow in pulmonary tuberculosis was estimated from the earpiece dye-dilution curve following dye injection into the femoral vein. Increased bronchial blood flow was found in 18 of 67 patients. Sex, age and duration of the disease were not found correlated with the frequency of increased bronchial blood flow. The cases of small lesions did not show any increased bronchial blood flow, while the cases with large area of tuberculous lesions had increased flow frequently. Tuberculous cavities were apparently associated with increased flow of the bronchial artery, but there was no correlation between increased flow of the bronchial artery and positive tubercle bacilli in the sputum. High frequency of increased flow was observed in far advanced cases, while cases of fibrotic or disseminated foci did not show any increased flow. The flow of the bronchial artery was not found increased in cases of marked or moderate improvement, but it was frequently increased in cases of persistence or aggravation of the disease. It is suggested that the development of the bronchial circulation is not associated with healing process of pulmonary tuberculosis, but related to progress of the disease.
The development of the permanent adrenal cortex of the fetus in the last quarter of gestation was histometrically examined. The volume of the permanent cortex did not increase in proportion to the total adrenal or body weight, but its growth kept pace with increase of adrenal surface area. The thickness of the permanent cortex did not essentially increase with the progress of fetal months. The permanent cortex was composed of columnar lobules demarcated by reticulin fibers. The diameter of the lobules became smaller with advancing fetal months, on account of subdivision of the lobules by invading reticulin fibers. The maturation of the permanent cortex in late pregnancy consisted consequently in subdivision of the lobules but not in an increase in the height of the lobules. The difference in the behavior of the permanent cortex between mature and premature newborns was that in the course of normal development. No deviation from the normal development was found in the permanent adrenal cortx of the premature.
Clinical and postmortal findings of esophageal carcinoma in a 74-year-old woman with urinary activities of chorionic gonadotropin were described. The tumor was anaplastic carcinoma with prominent pleomorphism of large carcinoma cells showing choriocarcinoma mimicry. Abundant evidence of choriocarcinoma was further presented by pulmonary and hepatic metastases. Cystic glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium mild in degree and signs of activity in ovarian stromal cells were observed. The significance of choriocarcinoma mimicry as a morphological expression of ectopic producton of chorionic gonadotropin was discussed. Ana-plastic large cell carcinoma with choriocarcinoma mimicry is extremely rare in the esophagus but will be unexceptionally capable of gonadotropin-secretion. This is the first case report in the literature.
When EDTA-decalcified bone of rat was subcutaneously implanted to allogeneic hosts, calcification of osseous and cartilage matrices proceeded as an accumulation of oval spheres of calcium deposits. The spheres were PAS-positive but not strongly basophilic, and surrounded by fine net of collagen fibrils. Treat-ments of decalcified grafts with toluidine blue, cetyl pyridinium chloride or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, all of which easily bind with acid mucopoly-saccharides, inhibited exposure of fibrils and suppressed calcification. Subsequent bathing in a high concentration of CaCl2 restored the original calcifiability. Bathing of decalcified grafts in low concentration of CaCl2 rendered tendons, ligaments, chondrocytes and muscles calcifiable. The calcified loci were also PAS-positive. The results mentioned above that mucopolysaccharides have a close relationship in the process of calcification.
Observations with the electron microscope were made on hepatic parenchymal cells of rats which had received an intraperitoneal injection of crystalline papain protease 48 hours before sacrifice. Most of the cells appeared dark due to a more compact arrangement of the various cytoplasmic organelles, which retained their normal organization. Occasionally, slight changes were observed in some of the organelles. The striking mitotic activity induced by papain protease seems to be due to a direct action of the enzyme rather than due to compensatory hyperplasia following damage to the liver tissue.
The perfusion of the AV node artery in eight dogs in situ was performed under constant pressure of 100mm Hg. Ganglionic stimulating agents, i.e., nicotine, DMPP and McN-A-343 were administered into the AV node artery. Doses above 3μg of nicotine always induced complete AV block. DMPP induced also complete AV block, but frequently followed by nodal tachycardia. These AV blocks were completely prevented by atropine or tetrodotoxin, and nodal tachycardia was blocked by propranolol. On the contrary, McN-A-343 at doses from 10μg to 1mg had entirely no effect on the AV conduction. The authors conclude that the complete AV block induced by nicotine or DMPP is due to the stimulation of parasympathetic ganglia and that nodal tachycardia following initial AV block induced by DMPP is due to catecholamine release from sympathetic nerve endings and not by stimulation of sympathetic ganglia, because McN-A-343 causes neither AV block nor nodal tachycardia.