The fine structural differences of motor endplate among the red, white and intermediate muscle fibers of the rat fast limb muscle, M. extensor digitorum longus, were observed by the electron microscope. The motor endplate of the red fiber was small. The junctional folds were poorly developed and their number was small. In the white fiber, the motor endplate was large and the junctional folds were well developed and their number was far more numerous than those in the red fiber. In the intermediate fiber, the development of junctional folds of motor endplate was rather similar to that of the white fiber although the number of the junctional folds was a little less than that of the white fiber.
An unusual type of peripheral adenoma of the lung in a 52-year-old Japanese female was reported. Clinically the patient showed no sign of hormonal disturbances. Surgically removed tumor was 7cm in diameter and histologically consisted of ovoid or fusiform cells of spindling and rather bland character, which were arranged prominently in solid nesting pattern suggestive of neurilemmoma or chemodectoma. However, a direct transition from the bronchiolar epithelium to the tumor cell nesting was confirmed by semi-serial sections. In comparison with the usual type of pulmonary adenomata, histological characteristics in this case were discussed in reference to the histogenesis based on constitutional differences between Japanese and Anglo-American races.
A simple and sensitive method for the measurement of plasma renin activity is described. The method consists of prolonged incubation (16 hours) of 2.0-3.0 ml of plasma at 37.5°C, pH 5.5, with small amounts of both ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and diisopropyl-fluorophosphate, purification of produced angiotensin with Dowex 50 AV-X4(H+) column chromatography, and bioassay on rat blood pressure. The recovery rate of added synthetic angiotensin II was 92.0±5.3% (s. n.). Plasma renin activity in 30 normal subjects ranged from 3.0 to 17.0 ng angiotensin equivalent per nil plasma. These values were significantly elevated in 6 cases of renovascular hypertension (20-84 nglml), in a case of interruption of the aorta (35 ng/ml), and in a case of malignant hypertension (80 ng/ml), while in 3 cases of primary aldosteronism they were suppressed to subnormal levels (2.0-2.3 ng/ml). The present method is easily applicable in ordinary clinical laboratories.
Urinary estrogen level in various stages of human pregnancy increased after pregnant mare serum (PMS) injection. This increase in the estriol fraction was statistically significant, whereas the level of urinary FS-substance in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy rose remarkably following temporary fall after injection of estradiol benzoate. This suggests a feed-back mechanism between FSH and estrogen secretion during pregnancy. The level of urinary FS-substance reached a peak in the third month of gestation and thereafter it fell to a relatively constant level. Later it again increased and reached the second peak in the 8th month and decreased toward the 9th month. In the 10th month the level was higher than that in the 3rd and 8th months. FS-substance contained in the placenta began to increase from the second trimester and it reached a peak in the 8th month, and then decreased in the last 2 months. These results indicated that the FS-substance was predominantly derived from the anterior pituitary during the early months of gestation, whereas con-siderable amounts of it were delivered from the placenta at least near the end of gestation.
A practical method for the estimation of plasma kininogens I and TI was described. The level of kininogen I was calculated as difference between total kininogen and kininogen II. One-tenth milliliter of heparinized plasma was in-cubated with 1.2 Frey units of human plasma kallikrein in 0.05M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37°C for 45 minutes to deplete kininogen I completely. It was then heated at 62°C for 15 minutes and incubated with 100μg of trypsin at 37°C for 45 minutes to release bradykinin from kininogen IT. To measure the total kininogen level (kininogens I and II), 0.1ml of plasma was first heated at 62°C for 15 minutes in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. It was then incubated with 100μg of trypsin at 37°C for 45 min utes. Released plasma kinin was assayed on the isolated rat uterus against synthetic bradykinin as a standard. Total kininogen and kininogen II levels were expressed as the amount of bradykinin released by these procedures. In 10 healthy subjects, the estimated levels for plasma kininogens I and IT lc ere 2.48±10.28 and 3.15±0.55μg bradykinin equivalent per milliliter, respeetieely. It seems essential to estimate the changes of kininogens I and II instead of total kininogen for the study of plasma kallikrein-kinin system in pathological and physiological conditions.
A newly synthesized sulfonylurea, glyclopyramide (N-p-chlorobenzene sul-fonyl, N'-pyrrolidinourea) was administered for a long period in 72 diabetic patients, including 25 inpatients and 47 outpatients. The therapeutic effect of glyelopyramide was good in 30 (79%) and fair in 4 of 38 patients of Group I, who had not been treated with any antidiabetic agents. Of 31 patients of Group II, who had not responded to another antidiabetics, 13 (48%) responded excellently and 10 (37%) fairly to the drug. Good control was achieved by glyclopyramide in 6 of the 7 diabetics of group III, who had been controlled by insulin less than 25 units daily. These results indicate that glyclopyramide gave good response in patients who had not been controlled by other oral antidiabe-tics, as well as in the patients treated initially with the drug, and that in some of insulin-requiring diabetes insulin could be replaced by glyclopyramide. Glucose tolerance was improved after a long-term administration of glyclopyramide. Elevated serum total lipid or cholesterol was decreased by the treatment with glyclopyramide. Four patients showed minor side-effects in the gastrointestinal tract. It is proved that the administration of the drug for a long period did not produce any toxic effects on liver function and hemogram. From this study it was concluded that glyclopyramide could be used success-fully and safely in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Serially cultivated human diploid cells became waning at the 30th transfer and extinct finally under the author's experimental conditions. From the analysis of their growth rates with various inoculum sizes, it was indicated that the smaller the inoculum size of human diploid cells was, the earlier the decline of their growth rate appeared. It was noted that the change in the replicating potency of diploid cells is due to the intensification of some cell density dependent characteristics. The intensified character was not the cellular leakiness, but the decline of feeder action.
Complement (C') fixation activity with use of rat tissue antigens was deter-mined on sera in various diseases including hepatic diseases and malignant tumor. High C' fixation activity was found in sera of various disease states, especially in the presence of rat liver homogenate. Patients with hepatic disease or malignant tumor showed higher activity than that in other diseases and in normal subjects. In the group of acute hepatitis, the majority of the activity was found in 19 S globulin and reduced considerably by preceding treatment of serum with C'. Latex coated with hepatitis candidate viruses was agglutinated by these sera. In chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis, both 19 S and 7 S globulins displayed the activity. The activity existing in 7 S globulin was resistant to preceding treat-ment with C' and was reduced by absorption with specific anti-tissue serum. From these results, this activity was regarded as partly specific to immune reaction between serum and tissue antigens, although the accurate roles of these antibodies in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis could not be clarified.
A modification of Merrill et al.'s method is described for determination of IgG in cerebrospinal fluid in diseases of the central nervous system. The following electrophoretic conditions for 10μl of nonconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid were satisfactory: current density of 60 mA, potential difference of 90 V, and electro-phoretic time of 90 minutes. Serial dilutions of a standard IgG specimen were used as controls each time together with test samples. In normal subjects the IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid ranged within 1.44±0.53 mg/100 ml. It was higher in multiple sclerosis, postvaccinal encephalitis, measles encephalitis, neuro-syphilis, meningitis and obstruction of the spinal canal, but lower in genuine epilepsy. IgG in cerebrospinal fluid in degenerative diseases and myeloneuropathy with abdominal signs (SMON) were within normal range. In brain tumors no constant IgG pattern was found. IgG% (IgG concentration/total protein concentration×100) in multiple sclerosis, postvaccinal encephalitis, measles encephalitis, tuberculous meningitis and neurosyphilis was increased, but that in obstruction of the spinal canal remained within the normal range.
A case of a 2-year-old patient was presented with hereditary hematuria associated with mental retardation (IQ<2d), convulsions, abnormal EEG and ocular abnormalities (rotatory nystagmus, strabismus, excessive myopia and moderately advanced visual cell degeneration). She was 5 years of age at the time of the present report. The parents were first cousins and had 4 children, one of whom (the second brother) had symptoms similar to the present patient, showing hematuria, mental retardation and convulsions. There were no histories of deafness or of death from renal failure in her pedigree. Biochemical studies, endocrine studies, chromosome analysis and renal function tests of the patient were all within normal limits. Urinalysis for 3 years showed slight positive or negative reaction for protein and always revealed numerous red cells in the sediments. Histological findings of the kidney obtained at two biopsies with an interval of one year were characterized by hyalinization or fetal appearance of the glomeruli in a small number, slight cell infiltration and red cell casts in some tubules just as seen in Alport's syndrome in childhood, and electron microscopical finding of the kidney was normal or showed a slight thickening of the basement membrane. It is likely that in our own case a new type of hereditary hematuria is discovered, which might be caused by a genetically controlled defect in an enzyme system common to portions of the renal, cerebral and ocular tissues, although the exact nature of the defect was not clarified.
A method to get a single roentgenogram stained with two colors is described. A usual medical x-ray film was exposed by two steps. The first exposure was made with the combination of the front piece of the intensifying screens and film, and the second exposure with that of the back piece of the intensifying screens and the back of the same film. The front and back of the roentgenogram were stained with magenta developer and cyanate developer respectively. In this roentgeno-graphy the total exposure dose and the image quality were almost the same as that of the usual roentgenography.