1) The MV on the scalp of the parietal region in 23 healthy subjects and 16 O. D. patients ranging from 9 to 11 years of age was recorded at rest in the supine position. 2) The rate in percentage of the value in the tilt position (b) to that at rest in the supine position (a) was calculated in every subject. The average of the b/a ratio was 93% in the healthy subjects and 78% in the O. D. patients. A statistically significant difference was observed between these two groups. 3) The above results might be considered mainly due to a transitory greater decrease in cardiac output in O. D. patients in 20° head-up tilt position from the supine position at rest than that in healthy subjects. 4) The other factors affecting the results may be considered to be an increase in peripheral vascular resistance, the state of emotion, the sensitivity of the subject, etc. 5) The study of the MV may give an important clue to the hemodynamics in O. D.. 6) A statistically significant difference in the average dominant amplitude in the MV between the healthy subjects and the O. D. patients was obtained. Therefore the MV can be used as a diagnostic aid in O. D.
In a 7-monthold boy with vitamin B6 dependent convulsion it was found that distribution of energy % of the EEG basic waves as well as an auto-correlogram of EEG remained abnormal 24 hours after an intramuscular injection of 20mg of pyridosal phosphate, but both were changed to normal patterns after a longterm B6 therapy.
Experiments were done in dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Adrenal venous blood was collected and analyzed for 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline. The animals were injected intravenously with 1.0, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.05U/kg of insulin. After injection of 0.1-1.0U/kg of insulin the adrenal 17-OHCS and medullary secretion increased significantly. Following administration of 0.05U/kg of insulin, however, no significant increases were observed. Thus, there was no definite difference in responsiveness to insulin-induced hypoglycemia between the adrenal cortex and medulla.
The secretion of androgens by the adrenal cortex was studied in intact, castrated and hypophysectomized dogs. The secretory activity was determined by measuring total 17-oxosteroids in adrenal venous blood. Under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, a, marked increase in the secretion of adrenal 17-oxosteroids was induced in intact and castrated dogs by an intravenous injection of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH, 2iu/kg), the increase being sustained over a 2-hour period of observation. The secretory response to ACTH in castrated dogs seemed to be somewhat larger than that in intact ones. An intravenous injection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG, 20iu/kg) to intact dogs failed to elicite notable secretion of the adrenal 17-oxosteroids. In other experiments, a treatment with methylenedianiline (15mg or 30mg/kg), an inhibitor of steroidogenesis. after injection of ACTH produced aa rapid diminution in adrenal 17-oxosteroid secretion in response to ACTH, the inhibition being observed within 15 minutes after the treatment. Furthermore, an intravenous injection of ACTH (2iu/kg) after pre-treatment with methylenedianiline (30mg/kg) to intact dogs failed to produce the increase of secretion. It is thus suggested that ACTH primarily produces an increase in secretion of the adrenal 17-oxosteroids and this effect is inhibited by a treatment with inethylenedianiline.
Pharmacological properties of morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were studied in mice and compared with those of morphine. 1) The analgesic effect of morphine-6-glucuronide was 3 to 4 times as potent and approximately 2 times as long in duration as that of morphine when injected subcutaneously. Morphine-3-glucuronide, however, showed no analgesic effect even in a dose of 27.6mg/kg. 2) The analgesic effect of morphine-6-glucuronide was about 45 times as potent as that of morphine, when injected intracerebrally in mice, but morphine-3-glucuronide had no effect. 3) After intraperitoneal injection of morphine-6-glucuronide in rats, only conjugated morphine was detected in the brain by chromatographic examination but not free morphine. 4) Morphine-6-glucuronide was also antagonized by nalorphine though to slightly lesser degree than morphine. 5) Development of tolerance to morphine-6-glucuronide in analgesic effect was almost the same in degree as that to morphine. Cross tolerance between morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine was observed as well.
The alkaline phosphatase isozyme pattern of blood plasma and liver was studied in rats which were subjected to various treatments such as tumor inoculation, liver injuries and the ligation of bile duct, by means of agar-gel electrophoresis, gel-filtration on Sephadex G-200 and anion-exchange column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. Acid phosphatase activity was also determined in some of these animals. The following results were obtained. (1) The elevated level of plasma alkaline phosphatase was shown in rats whose livers were experimentally damaged. This elevation was most remarkable when hepatobiliary system was occluded. (2) The alkaline phosphatase activities of plasma and liver, and plasma icterus index were found to increase in parallel in rats with liver metastases of tumor or with their bile ducts ligated, but not in those with the liver injured by CCl4 treatment. (3) By agar-gel electrophoresis, four kinds of isozyme pattern of this enzyme were observed in this experiment. (4) After gel-filtration on Sephadex G-200, rat serum proteins were separated into three peaks and alkaline phosphatase activity was found only in the second peak. The enzyme was further separable into two peaks when the second peak eluent from the rat with damaged liver was chromatographed on DEAE-Sephadex A-25. (5) In rats having ligated bile duct, the acid phosphatase activity of plasma showed no noteworthy changes throughout the entire period.
Responses of plasma LH to various stimuli were studied in order to evaluate a pituitary reserve of LH in normal subjects and in patients with various endocrine disorders. Plasma LH levels were determined by coated charcoal radioimmunoassay. Basal fasting levels of plasma LH in 22 normal men ranged from 7 to 55μg/100ml (LER 907) with a mean of 23. The variations of plasma LH in 6 normal subjects in 2 hours from 7: 30 to 9: 30a. m. were within 12μg/100ml. Treatments of normal subjects with insulin-induced hypoglycemia (regular insulin 0.1U/kg body weight i. v.), lysine-8-vasopressin (7 PU i. v. over 60min), Premarin (20mg i. v.) and clomiphene citrate (150mg/day by mouth for 3 days) resulted in significant rises of plasma LH in most of the subjects. Patients with panhypopituitarism showed no response of plasma LH to these stimuli and patients with Turner's syndrome and patients with idiopathic precocious puberty showed exaggerated responses.
Coagulation theory by Maki and Suzuki (Tohoku J. exp. Med., 1966, 88, 181) states that high-molecular-weight organic substances which act as bridging agents are indispensable in coagulation of concretions in the living organism. It was also shown by their co-workers that acid mucosubstances are distributed diffusely in gallstones and other calculi in a reticular fashion, and pathologic bile aslo contains these substances. On the other hand some polymers are known to have such a powerful coagulating effect that they are utilized in chemical industry and metallurgy. On these basis, a series of in vitro experiments were performed to study whether biogenous mucosubstances have actually such a coagulating effect using a suspension of guaranteed calcium carbonate in distilled water. Some of such substances exhibited perceptible coagulating effects that were comparable in every aspect with those of commercially available organic high-molecularweight coagulants. A fraction of mucosubstances extracted from the human gastric mucosa was the most potent substances, and this fraction proved to be an acid mucosubstances as revealed by infra-red absorption analysis. It was therefore inferred that some of acid mucosubstances existing in the living organism are actually concerned with in vivo formation of concretions.
N-Acetylglucosamine kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of N-acetylglucosamine to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ has been purified 110-fold from the 105, 000×g supernatant fraction of rat liver by fractionation involving ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The purified enzyme is highly specific for N-acetylglucosamine and differs from the enzymes of bacterial origin in that the former does not catalyze the phosphorylation of glucose as does the latter. The activity is greatest at pH 9.4. The Km for N-acetylglucosamine is 6.0×10-5M and the Km for ATP is 4.8×10-4M. The enzyme is inhibited by ADP, whose effect is partly competitive with respect to ATP and partly noncompetitive. Two rat ascites tumors, namely, Yoshida sarcoma and Yoshida ascites hepatoma (AH 130), possess N-acetylglucosamine kinase at levels comparable to those found in rat liver.
As for the direct perfusion of the canine anterior septal artery (ASA), no proper procedure for avoiding severe cardiohemodynamic disturbance due to regional ischemia has been reported. The author perfused the canine ASA in situ without any disadvantage by simultaneously perfusing the auterior descending artery.