Based on 7 Hakuri autopsies, new (?), prominent intracytoplasmic (elementary body-like particles and globular bodies) and less prominent intranuclear inclusions were demonstrated in smears from organs by Macchiavello's, Giemsa's, and Wright's stains. With the electron microscope a globular body found in the liver of a patient was proved to be composed of many virus-like particles which occluded the body. Both inclusions were most frequently detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes, the liver, the spleen, the lung, and occasionally in other organs. The authors wish to express their gratitude to Prof. K. Hukai for the electronmicroscopic examination. This study was aided by a grant from the Ministry of Education.
1. Efferent impulses of the cardiac nerve were studied in the toad, in order to relate them to the cardiac reflex in this animal. 2. Tonic discharges observed in this nerve were mostly sympathetic in origin and were similar to those in the splanchnic nerve in discharge patterns, conduction velocities and responses to electrical stimulation applied to the central end of various nerves. Not infrequently, the discharges in these two nerves waxed and waned synchronously. 3. From the cardiac nerve of some animals, there was also recorded a vagal discharge which effected slowing or standstill of the heart. Such a vagal discharge, however, was not a constant finding, its occurrence being dependent upon the season or upon the individual animals. 4. Severance experiments disclosed that at least one of the functions of the sympathetic tonic discharge was accelerating of the heart. Vagal tonic activity was also demonstrable in some animals.
Virus growth in organs of mice after intranasal, inracerebral and intraperitoneal inoculations of influenza virus, PR8 was studied. Even the inoculum was given from unnatural routees, the highest growth was obtained in lung among the organs tested. The mouse here used was three-weeks-old one and the virus titer in lung after intraperitoneal and intracerebral inoculations of large dosis of virus was just comparable to that obtained after inhalation of the small inoculum. In spite of such good growth, mice did not succumb after these unnatural inoculations, and sudden fall of virus titer in the lung was remarkable on the fifth day. Early and high antibody rise at these occasions was correlated to this sudden fall of virus titer. The significance of hemagglutinisns with low infectivity detectable in kidney and liver particularly at the time of intraperitoneal or intracerebral inculations was discussed.
The amount of virus introduced into the respiratory tract of mouse by our standard inhalation procedure has been calculated on the basis of two experiments. Firstly, the dilution extent of virus suspensions which will kill the 50% of mice by inhalation was compared with that obtained by instillation. The result indicated that 1/10 to 1/16 amount of virus was effective at the time of inhalation when compared to the value obtained at the time of instillation. Secondly, P32 labeled virus was prepared and the actual counts found along the whole respiratory tract and also in the lung were compared between two groups of mice infected by these two procedures. Here the value 1/10 was obtainable. Further it was shown that by the procedure of instillation, around 50 per cent of the theoretically introduced amount of virus was detectable in the naso-tracheo-broncho-alveolar tree. On the basis of these figures it was concluded that 1/500 ml. of virus solution which was put into the vaporizer was inhaled in the respiratory tract of mouse by means of our standard inhalation procedure. Uniform distribution of virus among animals has been suggested by inhalation contrary to the fairly deviated distribution of the inoculum from animal to animal at the time of instillation. From this observation, the difference of death tendency observed between two procedures have been elucidated.
The same amount of P32 labeled influenza virus, PR8, was given to mice by intranasal instillation, intracerebral and intraperitoneal inoculations and the radioactivity of the six organs, i.e. brain, trachea, lung, liver, kidney and spleen was determined both 30 minutes and 3 hours after infection. The count detectable in lung was highest at the time of instillation, but the high distribution of the virus in the lung tissue was not the case, after intracerebral and intraperitoneal inoculations. At the time of intracerebral inoculation, radioactivity was highest in brain de-creasing from 30 minutes to 3 hrs. and next in liver. At the time of intraperitoneal inoculation, the total detectable count was low when compared to the activity obtained by other procedures. Here, highest distribution was in the liver. The virus amount found in several organs was almost consistent when 30 minutes activity was compared to that of 3 hours, except in the case of intraperitoneal injection where the titer shift was found in liver, probably owing to the slow penetration of the virus from peritoneal cavity. The radioactivities of liver, kidney and spleen at 3 hours were in good agreement with the infectivity found on the first day of the infection. Sudden rise of P32 activity in the blood was noticed at 4 hrs. after intranasal instillation, and the fact was explained as the breakdown of virus particles. The concept pneumotropism of influenza virus has been discussed from the results obtained in this study.
1. Twenty four cases with carcinoma of the gallbladder were studied histologically. In ten gallbladders, one to three early microscopic lesions of carcinoma were observed beside the main tumors, suggesting that the multicentric occurrence of the lesion is not unusual. 2. Among the above 24 cases, 15 (62.5 per cent) were complicated with calculi. Such a high rate of the concurrence suggested some relations between the two conditions, therefore thorough microscopic studies were performed on 237 gallbladders which had been ectomized for various surgical disorders other than neoplasms. 3. The papillary or adenomatous proliferations of the epithelium were observed in 31 (13.1 per cent) of the 237 cases, i.e. in 25 (14.6 per cent) of the 168 calculous and in six (8.7 per cent) of the 69 non-calculous cases, among which eight cases were evidently precancerous. These epithelial overgrowths were, however, morc closely dependent upon the existence of the inflammations than the presence of calculi, and these were observed most commonly in cases with the marked chronic inflammations.
1. The tuberculous changes induced in the experimental silicoticlungs of rabbits were found perceptibly more aggravated than those in the control rabbits with simple tuberculosis. 2. In groups of animals subjected to nearly the same rounds of dust inhalation, the tuberculous lesions were somewhat more aggravated in the animals subjected to inhalation of dust with high silica content than those given low silica content, but the difference was rather slight. 3. In the groups made to inhale dust with the same silica content, the animals subjected to more rounds of inhalation showed higher aggravation of the tuberculous lesions, in number, size and tendency to exudative changes, than those subjected to lesser rounds of dust inhalation. 4. The higher accumulation of silica-dust carrying cells in the cases with higher aggravation of the tuberculous changes seems to suggest that in accounting for the development of silico-tuberculous lesions we must pay more attention to the total amount of silica, especially, the dysfunction of the phagocytes due to their satiation with silica particles, rather than to the content of free silica in the dust.