Gluconeogenesis in thyrotoxicosis was studied by oral glycerol-loading test and alanine-loading test performed on 5 normal subjects and 5 cases of thyrotoxicosis. The blood glucose levels in thyrotoxicosis rose after the administration of glycerol deposite elevation of the plasma levels of insulin. After the administration of alanine, the levels of IRI, pyruvate and lactate elevated in thyrotoxicosis. In normal subjects, the plasma levels of glucose, IRI, pyruvate, or lactate did not change significantly after glycerol or alanine load.
Serum free thyroxine (T4) was measured by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay in various thyroid states and in those associated with changes in serum T4-binding proteins. And it was compared with the value obtained by product of total serum T4 and of per cent free T4 by equilibrium dialysis. Serum free T4 concentrations were found to be 1.34±0.33ng/100ml (mean±s. D. ) in 51 normal subjects, 5.02±1.41ng/100ml in 29 hyperthyroid patients, 0.16±0.15ng/100ml in 12 hypothyroid patients, and the value in each individual of the latter two groups was significantly different from normal. Serum free T4 was normal of 1.28±0.22ng/100ml in 7 pregnant women and all had free T4 levels within the normal range. Moreover, five out of six patients with decreased thyroxine-binding globulin had normal free T4 levels, though their mean value (0.85±0.20ng/100ml) was significantly lower than the normal value. An excellent correlation (r=0.93) was observed between values for serum free T4 obtained by the present method and those by the equilibrium dialysis method. The simplicity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of this assay render it highly attractive for routine clinical determination.
A case is reported of a 5-year-old boy with Lowe syndrome. The patient was unusual in that he had only mild and transient acidosis with no rickets. The corneal opacities in the parents suggest that this disease might be autosomal recessive.
A radioimmunoassay procedure to measure triiodothyronine (T3) in unextracted urine is described. One hundred, μl of T3 standards or samples were incubated with 100, μl of T3 antiserum (1:40, 000), 100μl of tracer 125I-T3 and 700μl of 0.05M borate buffer, pH 8.6. Separation of free from bound antigen was achieved by dextran coated charcoal. The cross-reaction of L-T3 with L-T4 in this assay system was less than 0.2%. Dilution of high T3 urine was parallel to the standard curve. Recovery was 101±8%. Coefficients of variation were 3-8% within each assay and 13% between assays. Euthyroid subjects excreted 0.81±0.39μg (mean±S. D. ) in 24hr. Similar values were obtained in pregnant women, euthyroid patients with chronic thyroiditis, and a patient with thyroxine-binding globulin deficiency. Excretion of urinary T3 was high (7.48±3.32μg/24h) in patients with hyperthyroidism, and low (0.14±0.15μg/24hr) in patients with hypothyroidism. Urinary T3 excretion was almost undetectable in terminal renal failure. Positive correlations were found between urinary T3 and serum total T3 (r=0.89) and especially serum free T3 (r=0.97). A positive correlation was also found between urinary T3 and creatinine clearance (r=0.63). Mean urinary clearance of T3(CT3=Urinary T3 excretion/serum free T3 was 166ml/min and was significantly higher than their mean creatinine clearance (110ml/min). The measurement of T3 in urine is reliable and easy to perform, and may allow a new approach to the understanding of thyroid hormone metabolism.
In order to establish clonal human lymphoblastoid cell lines, human tonsillar lymphocytes infected with Epstein-Barr virus were directly seeded in semi-solid agar. After four weeks, resulting colonies were randomly isolated and transferred to suspension culture. At around three months after the initiation of the culture, immunoglobulin (Ig) production of 17 clones thus established was determined. Cytoplasmic and membrane Ig were detected by immunofluorescence staining and secretory Ig in the culture supernatants was detected by double immunodiffusion. The patterns of Ig production by these cell lines were clear-cut. Each clone produced and secreted one class of heavy chains and one type of light chains, i. e., a single Ig. Of 17 clones, 13 clones were IgM producers, 3 clones were IgA producers and one clone was an IgG producer. Membrane Ig of these clones was also identical with cytoplasmic/secretory Ig with the exceptions of three IgM producers in which membrane IgD as well as IgM was detected and the one IgG producer in which no membrane Ig was detected.
The vascular anastomosis free of suture was made by using an absorbable suture and its tensile strength was compared with that of non-absorbable suture anastomosis. 29 adult mongrel dogs weighing 7.5 to 13.5kg were used. Two kinds of vascular anastomosis were performed, that is, artery-to-artery anastomosis and vascular prosthetic graft to artery anastomosis. They were made in the right carotid artery and the abdominal aorta, respectively. Two kinds of suture were used for the vascular anastomosis, i.e., polyglycolic acid suture as an absorbable suture and TEVDEK® suture as a non-absorbable suture. The tensile strength of anastomosis was measured by a self-made tensiometer. The following results were obtained: In the artery-to-artery anastomosis, the loss of the strength of suture did not weaken the anastomosis, whereas in the vascular prosthetic anastomosis, the loss of the tensile strength of suture weakened the vascular prosthetic anastomosis. However, well organized fibrous tissues surrounding the vascular prosthesis were strong enough to hold against the blood pressure.
In order to study the effect of hematocrit (Ht) on the photoelectric plethysmograms of fingers and toes, an experimental model study and a clinical study were carried out. Experimentally, it was found that the height of the plethysmograms increased when the values of Ht were lowered. In the clinical study, 3 groups of patients with different Ht values ranging from 27 to 55% were examined. A reverse relationship was found between the Ht value and pulse height of the plethysmogram. The physical effects of the blood flow and contents upon the plethysmograms were discussed.
In eight patients with Neuro-Behcet's disease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells were studied in relation to the clinical symptoms, clinical course and treatment. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The mean value of CSF cell counts was 126± 177/3mm3 in 88 specimens from the patients, and 2.9±2.4/3mm3 in 30 specimens from healthy control subjects, the former being significantly higher than the latter (p<0.01). (2) In the patients' CSF, the average percentages of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells were 67±23% and 32±23%, respectively. (3) In CSF cytogram from 37 specimens from the patients, the average percentage of small lymphocytes was 59±19%, which was significantly lower (p<0.01) than control (71±8%). The average percentage of activated lymphocytes, activated monocytes and neutrophils which were not observed in control were 0.5±1.2%, 1.9±2.2% and 17±16%, respectively. (4) The ratio of nucleic acids (RNA/DNA) measured by microspectrophotometry (Zeiss UMSP-1) in CSF lymphocytes stained with methylgreen and pyronin was 0.58±0.12 in 17 specimens from the patients and 0.55±0.07% in 10 specimens from the control; there was no significant difference between them. These results suggested that the pleocytosis in Neuro-Behcet's disease may represent perivascular inflammatory process in the central nervous system.
Treatment of Cultured HeLa S3 cells with ACNU, 100, μg/ml, for 30min inhibited the cell growth intensely. The cell number was minimum on the 4th day after the treatment and recovered gradually, but it was still 24% of control on the 14th day. The colony formation, as an index of proliferation ability of cells, was remarkably inhibited and the number of colony formed on the 14th day after the treatment was 8% of control. DNA synthesis was inhibited by 59%, whereas little or no effect was observed on RNA or protein synthesis after 24hr. Ethylene-14C-ACNU was bound to DNA and RNA to a similar degree, and that bound to the acid-insoluble fraction within 30min was decreased by half after 24hr and sustained thereafter. A signifiant decrease in sedimentation velocity of DNA on alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation was observed after 24hr, and the decrease on neutral sucrose density gradient centrifugation was noticeable already by 2hr. From the results of this study and other reports, the mechanism of action of ACNU seems to be alkalyation of DNA followed by damage to DNA, which progresses quite slowly compared with other alkylating agents, causing cell damage and cell death.
A technical modification in pulmonary venous anastomosis is presented for one-stage bilateral lung autotransplantation in dogs. This method nullified or minimized both narrowing and loss of vascular distensibility due to scar formation at anastomotic line which inevitably resulted in functional defects after the operation. In this new procedure, bilateral pulmonary arteries were anastomosed using angioplastic techniques and both right and left pulmonary veins were sutured orthotopically as a single atrial cuff. Of 11 dogs which underwent one-stage bilateral lung replantation, 6 survived after operation. Sites of vascular anastomoses in the long-term survivors showed no narrowing due to scar formation at autopsy after hemodynamic examination. In these animals rapid and continuing infusion of 2000 to 3000ml of blood or plasma explander was performed within 15min through an intraatrial catheter. Various hemodynamic values were measured simultaneously. In the dog with bilateral lung transplants pulmonary arterial pressure showed linear increase with an increase in cardiac output when compared with control animal studies. It could be interpreted from these results that some changes occurred in the mechanism of pulmonary circulation of the transplant.
Significant decrease in serum very low density lipoproteins and low density lipoproteins was observed after Bay g 5421 trial (300mg/day for 6 weeks) in 14 hyperlipidemic patients. Although no significant changes were demonstrated in serum fractions of bile acids, the alteration in the patterns of fecal bacterial flora including the increase in obligate anaerobes was observed after the trial and this was accompanied by the increase in fecal fat excretion. Thus, the possible change in the intestinal bile acid metabolism with the altered flora may lead to an increased catabolism of cholesterol and to the reduction of serum low density lipoproteins. The meteorism developed in several patients but its etiology was shown to be independent of the patterns of the pre-trial bacterial flora and diet composition.
An effective isolation of carbonic anhydrase C (CA-C) from red cell lysate was described. The lysate dialyzed against 0.0175M phosphate buffer pH 6.3 was applied onto a CM-Sephadex column equilibrated with the same buffer. The elution was performed with the starting buffer and 0.1M dibasic potassium phosphate containing 0.14M NaCI. The hemoglobin fraction eluted with the second eluant was applied onto a DEAE-cellulose column and eluted with 0.2M glycine containing 0.01 percent KCN, resulting in complete isolation of CA-C at high recovery rate. For the preparation in a large scale, the hemoglobin fraction prepared from CM-Sephadex semibatch-type chromatography was treated with cold ethanol and chloroform. The purity of these preparations was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis.
Vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from the “rice water” diarrheal stool of a female patient with acute entero-colitis, and from the trout roe which she ate. Subsequently, it was clearly demonstrated that, besides of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus was also enteropathogenic for humans. Additionally, we described the difference in the colony formation on some commercial thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agars when Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio cholerae were tested.
Study was made of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) in 729 obese subjets in various groups, namely, primary school children, high school children, university students, and outpatients. The incidences of abnormal GPT, GOT, and γ-GTP in the obese subjects were frequently significantly higher than in the controls. It was most clearly shown in GPT. The incidences of abnormal GPT in the obese females were significantly lower than those in the obese males, but were significantly higher than the controls. Higher incidences of abnormality in the school children were ascirbed to the higher degree of obesity in the children. The extent of increase in GPT was considerable. GPT was sometimes higher than 6 times the normal upper limit.