In a two-month old Japanese boy with acute infectious non-bacterial gastroenteritis, reovirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy in columnar epithelial cells, goblet cells and cells which infiltrated in the lamina propria of the upper jejunum which had been taken by peroral biopsy 90 hr after the onset of the illness.
Each twenty male and female young rats (Donryu) were divided into five groups. Four groups of each sex were fed fat-free diet with different carbohydrates; corn-starch, glucose, sucrose, or fructose. The remaining one group of each sex was fed a commercial diet. After rearing for one month, hemoglobin content, level of blood sugar, weight of organs, and content and composition of lipids in serum and liver were measured. (1) Among the female carbohydrate-groups, the variation in the weight of organs was significantly large only in carcass and adrenals. Contents of hepatic lipids were similar among the carbohydrate-groups. The lowest content of serum lipids was found in the glucose group. (2) In the male, significant variations were found in the weights of carcass, spleen and kidneys. The highest content of hepatic lipids was in the starch group, but the highest content of serum lipids was in the fructose group. (3) The present experimental conditions were particular in that fat and fatty acids were excluded from diet in comparison with similar experiments reported, and the sex-difference in the response of rats to different kinds of carbohydrates found in the present study was similar to that being already noted.
The change of pyrophosphatase activity in the chicken serum was studied during the course of development. The enzyme activity was higher at the age of rapid growth than at the age of maturation. This finding suggests the participation of pyrophosphatase and pyrophosphate in controlling the calcification process.
The activities of formation of lactate and pyruvate were studied along with the development of chickens, Gallus domestica. In the lung the activity of lactate formation was highest in the embryo at 13th to 16th days of incubation, then the activity decreased as the development went on and continued to decrease even after the hatching. The change of the activity of pyruvate formation was almost parallel with that of lactate formation. On the other hand, in the liver the activities of formation of lactate and pyruvate remained constant and did not show such changes as observed for the lung.
The urinary excretion of amino acids and their derivatives in cases of Wegener's granulomatosis have been examined, and the excretion of urinary amino acids in such cases was different from normal and reticulum cell sarcoma. In Wegener's cases, the amino acids which were always found in readily detectable amounts totaled 33; urinary phenylalanine was 4-5 times higher than in normal subjects. From these experimental results, we believe that the observation of amino acid excretion into urine is an important indicator for the diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis. In addition, the results of quantitative examination on the urinary amino acid excretion were compared with normal and reticulum cell sarcoma. Comparison of the analytical data on urinary amino acids of the normal and patient groups indicated significant metabolic abnormalities of some amino acids at the earliest stage of Wegener's granulomatosis
RNA content in the heart muscle cells of the adrenalectomized rats and those with aortic constriction was measured by microspectrophotometry. In the adrenalectomized rats, the RNA content decreased about 32% below that of the intact control rats by 7 days after operation. On the other hand, it decreased more abruptly in the adrenalectomized rats with aortic constriction. These results suggested that in the adrenalectomized rats, hypoplasia of the heart was caused by reduction of RNA content and myocardial compensatory hypertrophy was never induced even by overloading to the heart. The fact that the reduction of RNA content preceded the decrease of the heart weight per 100 g body weight suggests that in the cases of sudden unexpected death by unknown cause, the measurement of RNA content of heart muscle cells may by a clue to judge whether the cause of death is concerned with the heart or not.
Twelve specimens of ascitic and pleural effusion (APE) from patients with malignant diseases were examined quantitatively for growth promot-ing effect on three human cell lines and one human cell strain, by four different assay procedures. Simultaneously, healthy human serum (HS) and fetal calf serum (FCS) were also examined for comparison. When the activity per mg protein of the test specimen was evaluated, the value of APE on an average was somewhat greater than that of HS in three out of four different assays, although FCS gave a higher average value than either APE or HS did in two of the three assays. However, a portion of APE specimens were found to have a unique promoting activity responsible for increase in number of cell colonies.
Free amino acids in the tissue of the palatine tonsil and the adenoid were analyzed using a JEOL 6-AS Type Auto-Analyzer, and comparative examination was made on 26 kinds of amino acids discovered. Of these, 23 amino acids showed significantly high values in the palatine tonsil, but hydroxyproline and tryptophan showed somewhat higher values in the adenoid. These results suggest that the metabolism in the palatine tonsil is more active than in the adenoid.
Three members of a kindred exhibiting bilateral adrenal pheochromocytomas are presented together with previously reported 15 familial cases in Japan. The rate of tumor growth, the stage of asymptomatic or chemical pheochromocytoma and the importance of urinary catecholamine assay for detection and diagnosis in this type of tumor are particularly emphasized.
Forty-four cases of diverticulosis of the colon were detected among 2, 662 cases examined by barium enema in Tohoku University. This corresponds to 1.7% in frequency. On the other hand, 21 cases were found among 1, 511 cases examined in Hirosaki University, giving 1.4% in frequency. It was more frequent in the male. The frequency, as calculated on the basis of the numbers of cases examined by barium enema in separate age groups, showed the gradual increase with age except for above the eighth decade. The location where the diverticulum was most frequently seen was the right colon; namely, cases in which the diverticulum occurred from the cecum to the ascending colon and those in which it was found only in the ascending colon occupied 61.4 and 71.4% of the total cases, respectively. Diverticulitis as a complication was rare, while coincidence of polyp or carcinoma was sometimes observed. Furthermore, the value of fiberscopy for the diagnosis of diverticulosis of the colon was discussed, and its usefulness for the detection of complication was emphasized.
A group of neonatal chicks (subject) was kept in complete darkness before and after hatching, whereas another group (control) was raised under normal light conditions. The electric resistance and standing potential across the eyeball were measured between the cornea and occipital area on the 3-5 day after hatching. Under dark adaptation, the resistance of the subject group was much higher than that of the control. The standing potential of the subject group showed a large negativity of 4-15 mV on the cornea side, whereas that of the control group showed a slight positivity of 0.1-1.5 mV. The resistance and standing potential of the control eyeballs showed only a slight change during the light adaptation, whereas those of the subject group markedly decreased during the initial light adaptation. Ultimately, they became the same as the control group. These observed changes were irreversible, suggesting a certain structural change in the retina produced by the initial exposure to light. The results were discussed in relation to the morphological changes in photoreceptors observed after the initial exposure to light.
In order to clarify the significance of fibercolonoscopy in diagnosis of granulomatous colitis, the pathological, radiological, endoscopic and clinical differences between granulomatous colitis and ulcerative colitis were investigated on 12 cases of granulomatous colitis and 23 cases of ulcerative colitis, which underwent colonic resections between 1954 and 1973. The comparative studies have revealed considerable differences in their characteristic features besides the overlapping spectrum. As a con-sequence of assessments made of the various diagnostic techniques as to usefulness in differential diagnosis between the two colitis conditions, it was noted that fibercolonoscopy and biopsy under direct vision, when applied in conjunction with the conventional procedures, readily facilitate the differential diagnosis without any surgical intervention in all aspects, excepting the depth of in-flammatory involvement and the presence of lymphangiectasia. However, the depth of the inflammed lesion as well as lymphangiectasia can also be estimated indirectly. Therefore, it seems that it is possible to make the differential diagnosis between the two colitis conditions even prior to colectomy, with the exception of atypical forms which represent overlapping findings.
In 15 impotent patients, the effect of visual sexual stimulation was evaluated by measuring their urinary levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline, before and after stimulation. Both adrenaline and noradrenaline increased in the urine over the base levels in response to the visual sexual stimulation. The average increases were 1.5 times for adrenaline, and 1.4 times for noradrenaline. There was an evident correlation between the degree of sexual excitation and the excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline into urine.