The kobu decoction has both a cardio-tonic and a vasodilatative action. In its action at first the latter overcomes the former and brings forth a slight fall of the blood pressure, while a little later just the reverse is the case, the blood pressure being raised. The urine excretion is augmented owing to its action dilatating the renal blood vessel, which is aided by the diuretic action of mannit contained in it. A large dose of the decoction is followed by a disturbance of the heart beat, together with the dilatation of blood vessels, which may induce the fall of blood pressure and consequent death.
(1) Employing the “cava pocket” method of Stewart and Rogoff, we have been able to detect a distinct increase of the rate of epinephrine output from the suprarenal glands by sensory stimulation. The increase of the rate of epinephrine output was caused either soely by the increase of the epinephrine concentraion of the blood from the suprarenal veins, by the co-operation of an increase of the blood flow through the suprarenal glands, or chiefly by the latter. No effect of sensory stimulation upon the rate of epinephrine output was also observed in some cases. (2) The rate of epinephrine output under the unavoidable experimental conditions of the “cava pocket” method, as anaesthesia, laparotomy, tying of blood vessels, etc., but without applying any particular manipulation such as stimulation of the nerve as a centripetal one, asphyxia, etc. does not range within so narrow a limit. (3) As a rule, the amount of epinephrine left in the suprarenal glands, the epinephrine output from which was largely augmented by sensory stimulation, was greater in comparison with that of the cases where the augmentation of epinephrine output by the same manipulation was small.
Acidosis occurs in patients of anaemia where the blood count is below three millions. It is relieved when the anaemia improves. In patients of anaemia breathlessness is observed also when the number of erythrocytes are reduced below one million and when marked acidosis is demonstrable. Acute haemorrhagic anaemia experimentally produced in rabbits is accompanied by acidosis which developes the more markedly and disappears the more slowly when the more blood has been drawn. Generally acidosis is relieved more quickly than anaemia. Intravenous infusion of normal saline solution in the cases of acute haemorrhage has no immediate effect upon the changed blood alkalinity, but accelerates the amelioration of anaemia and acidosis. By infusion of gum acasia solution the acidosis is lessened though slightly, while the recovery from anaemia and acidosis is, on the contrary, retarded. Blood transfusion maintains normal blood alkalinity, but for not longer than twenty-four hours on account of the gradual destruction of the transfused blood cells. In subacute haemorrhagic anaemia caused by repeated bleeding acidosis is demonstrated when the haemoglobin content is reduced below 40%. First is lowered the carbon dioxide content of plasma, later the value of equilibrium constant of the oxygen dissociation curve. In progressive toxic anaemia due to the administration of phenylhydrazine marked acidosis developes, the oxygen dissociation curve having already descended in the early stage. In each type of experimental anaemias the relation between the severity of the anaemia and that of acidosis is discussed.
1. Die Glykogenbestimmungsmethode nach Bierry-Yamakawa durch direkte Invertierung ist viel zeitsparender als die Pflüger'sche Methode; sie liefert stets einen grösseren Glykogenwert als letztere. 2. Der Mehrwert der Invertierungsmethode beruht aber zum Teil auf den nicht-glykogenen reduzierenden Substanzen, die bei der Hydrolyse der Gewebe entstehen und mit dem invertierten Zucker bei der Reduktionsprüfung zusammen bestimmt werden. Daher muss man bei der Glykogenbestimmung durch die Invertierungsmethode die erhaltene Totalreduktion durch Substrahieren der nicht-glykogenen Reduktion korrigieren. 3. Diese nicht-glykogenen reduzierenden Substanzen lassen sich leicht bestimmen durch Ermittlung der Restreduktion nach Vergärung des beigemischten Zuckers. 4. Der Wert der Restreduktion, die durch nicht-glykogene Sub-stanzen verursacht worden ist, bleibt vom Ernährungszustande der Ver-suchstiere fast unabhängig. Er beträgt bei Kaninchen in der Leber 0, 3 % (als Glukose berechnet), in den Muskeln 0, 2 %.