The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-3329
Print ISSN : 0040-8727
ISSN-L : 0040-8727
Volume 7 , Issue 5-6
Showing 1-10 articles out of 10 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROSHI TACHI, KIMITAMI TAKAI, IJURO FUJII
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 411-421
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    When the body temperature is artificially kept nearly at the normal height, the hyperglycaemia and glycosuria in dogs by means of ether inhalation are to some extent restricted.
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  • Togo Hoshi
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 422-445
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. Die Aceton-Pikrinsäure-Methode ist die beste Methode für die Isolierung des Pankreashormons im Blute, das dadurch quantitativ fast vollkommen gewonnen werden kann.
    2. Das Pankreashormon im Blute 1-5 Tage hungernder Kaninchen bleibt fast unverändert.
    3. Das Pankreashormon im Blute zeigt durch Pilokarpininjektion fast keine Veränderung oder leichte. Neigung zur Verminderung.
    4. Das Pankreashormon im Blute nimmt durch Adrenalininjektionzu.
    5. Das Pankreashormon im Blute zeigt durch Fütterung mit Thyreoidin leichte Neigung zur Verminderung.
    6. Das Pankreashormon im Blute zeigt durch Pituitrininjektion fast keine Verändernng oder leichte Neigung zur Verminderung.
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  • Togo Hoshi
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 446-481
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KASANU TASHIRO
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 482-508
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In looking over the results of these experiments we find that the uric acid and the urea-nitrogen concentrations of the blood seem to undergo separate and independent changes by the actions of these drugs and to have no connection with each other whatever. By pilocarpine the ureanitrogen content is distinctly increased, and the uric acid slightly decreased, while by atropine the results are entirely opposite. By adrenaline first the ureanitrogen content decreases hand in hand with the uric acid value, but when later the latter increases gradually the former can not be called always increasing. By caffeine they both increase, the uric acid, always showing a significant increase even in an instance, in which the ureanitrogen content has decreased. By guanidine the uric acid greatly increases in spite of the decrease of the ureanitrogen content, while by insuline they both decrease. The increase of the ureanitrogen content due to pilocarpine is necessarily followed by the increase of the uric acid.
    Minkowski2) has reported that in a goose the injection of ammonia or urea augments the uric acid elimination and the removal of the liver is followed by a reduced output of uric acid and urea and by an increased elimination of ammonia. If a large amount of aminoacid is injected into a liverless goose, the ammonia excretion only is found increased, while the urea, which has been injected, is eliminated unchanged. According to the experiments of Scaffidi34) and Avellone35) when the liver is extirpated from a goose or a duck, the uric acid elimination is only temporarily decreased, and after two or three days it comes to excrete a normal amount of uric acid. Avellone, on injecting urea into a normal duck, observed the outputs of urea, uric acid and ammonia all increased. He found also that when urea was injected into a duck with its liver vessels tied, after the restoration of the uric acid excretion to its normal value, the uric acid elimination was seen increased. From these facts Minkowski's2) assertion, that the liver is the only organ for the uric acid synthesis, must be denied, but it can never lose its supreme position as an organ, in the goose, of synthetizing the uric acid. It is at the same time a very important organ perhaps for urea synthesis. Seen from the experiments above mentioned, the changes of the urea-synthetizing function of a goose by such drugs as pilocarpine, atropine, adrenaline, caffeine, guanidine and insuline, may be said to be nearly in accord with those in a rabbit. The uric acid synthetic functions probably undergo changes contrary to those of the ureanitrogen due to pilocarpine, atropine and guanidine and sometimes adrenaline and caffeine. Thus, it is ascertained that the uric acid and the ureanitrogen contents of the blood are influenced independent of each other. In view of this fact, the assertion that uric acid is directly formed out of the urea in the liver of bird seems to be most doubtful.
    When we analyse pharmacologically the nervous regulation in the process of the uric acid synthesis, the evidence that the blood uric acid content is slightly decreased by a parasympathetic stimulant such as pilocarpine, and slightly increased by atropine, suggests that the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system inhibitingly regulates the uric acid synthesis. The facts that it is markedly increased by adrenaline after a lapse of a certain time and that it is considerably augmented by caffeine, even when the ureanitrogen content shows a manifest decrease, point out that there is an accelerating action of sympathetic excitations upon the uric acid synthesis. That it is significantly increased by guanidine and decreased by insuline can not be explained from the side of the vegetative nervous system. The effect of these drugs upon the ureanitrogen content of a goose is similar to that of a rabbit.
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  • KASANU TASHIRO
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 509-521
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. The centripetal stimulation of the vagus, if comparatively strong, brings pressor effect and if comparatively weak, depressor effect on the blood pressure.
    But, in an animal, whose splanchnics are severed or whose abdominal viscera are removed, a strong afferent stimulation of the vagus gives rise rather to a lowering, not to a raising, of the blood pressure.
    Also in an animal deeply anaesthetized, the blood pressure is markedly lessened by a strong afferent stimulation. In one with its vagi on both sides cut the result is the same.
    Even when the large brain is removed, so far as the medulla oblongata is preserved, the afferent stimulation produces a pressor effect.
    2. The afferent stimulation, regardless of its intensity, lessens the rate of heart beat. An increase is rarely observed.
    3. Respiration is depressed by the stimulation of the central vagus stump.
    4. The automatic movement of the stomach and intestines is more or less inhibited by a relatively strong stimulation of the central vagus stump and is accelerated by a relatively weak stimulation.
    5. Changes in blood pressure, rate of heart beat, respiration and movement of the stomach and intestines due to afferent vagus stimulation are similar to those caused by sensory nerve stimulation, with regard to the fact that they show themselves in opposite ways according to whether the stimulation is strong or weak and to the evidences shown in the experiments of anaesthesia, decerebration, etc. It may, therefore, be presumed that the change brought about by the stimulation of the central vagus stump is a reflex phenomenon similar to that due to the sensory nerve stimulation.
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  • YASUTARO SATAKÉ, IJURO FUJII
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 522-534
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YASUTARO SATAKE, SOZO HIRAYAMA
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 535-543
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the dogs, the dorsal spinal roots of the IV thoracic to the II lumbar cord of which were previously bilaterally divided, that is, the abdominal wall and the abdominal viscera were de-afferented, laevulose solution, in a dose of 2.5 grms. laevulose per kilo of body weight, was administered through the gastric tube into the stomach. The animal was fastened on the table; no narcotic was given, no pain was evoked by the operations. The introduction of laevulose was immediately followed by an increase of sugar content of the portal blood, which reached its maximum, in an half to one hour and then dropped to its initial height with about the same velocity as it ascended. In the later stage the hypoglycaemia was demonstrable.
    This hyperglycaemia was pretty remarkable in the instances, where at the end of 8-9 hours' experiment after the administration only a small quantity of laevulose was left in the stomach, while it was not so evident, though unmistakable, when the passage of laevulose from the stomach into the intestine did not take place nearly so completely through the experimentation extended for many hours. In the latter examples the sugar content in the blood in the general circulation accordingly did not increase with certainty, in contrast to the former cases, where occurrence of hyperglycaemia was unquestionable in harmony with the remarkable increase of the reducing power in the portal blood.
    The time relation of the hypenglycaemia was practically the same in both kinds of blood, that is the portal blood and the ear vein blood.
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  • Shigeru Matsui
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 544-552
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • SHUN-ICHI YOSHIMATSU
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 553-559
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Shuzo Kimura
    1926 Volume 7 Issue 5-6 Pages 560-601
    Published: September 10, 1926
    Released: November 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In dieser Arbeit wurde versucht, durch Bestimmung der pH-Optima enter Verwendung verschiedener Puffermischungen, verschiedene Arten der im Serum vorkommenden Protease festzustellen. Zuerst wurde durch sorgfältige Vorprüfungen die Brauchbarkeit der pH-Serienmethode für diesen Zweek genau geprüft. Die Ergebnisse der Hauptversuche lassen rich dahin zusammenfassen.
    1. Im Menschenserum sind drei Arten der Protease nachzuweisen, die sich grundsätzlich durch ihr pH-Optimum unterscheiden. Das Serumpepsin wirkt optimal bei pH=1, 5-1, 9, das autolytische Ferment des Serums bei pH=3, 9-4, 4 und die Serumtryptase bei pH=6, 9-8, 4.
    2. Das peptische und tryptische Enzym des Menschenserums weist übrigens die bekannte Eigenschaft auf, wodurch sein Prototyp sich charakterisiert: die Pepsinverdauung der Eiweisskörper findet mit der Bildung der Peptone ihren Abschluss, während Trypsin genuine Proteine weiter bis zu den Aminosäuren zerlegt.
    3. Menschenserum ist ausserdem noch mit einer peptonspaltenden Wirkung bebaftet. Man darf aber daraus nicht das Vorkommen einer isolierten Serumereptase folgern, denn sie kann in ihrer Wirkungsweise und optimalen H-Ionenkonzentration von Tryptase überhaupt nicht differenziert werden.
    4. Gegen Hitzewirkung sind das peptische und autolytische Enzymdes Menschenserums ebenso stark empfindlich wie die Serumtryptase. Nach 30 Minuten langer Erhitzung bei 55°C werden sie schon beträchtlich abgeschwächt, bei 60°C fast vollständig vernichtet.
    5. Durch Verdünnung mit Wasser wird die peptische Wirkung des Serums deutlich befördert, ähnlich wie bei Serumtryptase. Diese Erscheinung wird aber bei autolytischem Ferment nicht merklich hervorgebracht.
    6. Die durch Yamakawa bekannte Azetonaktivierung der Serumprotease ist nur bei Serumtryptase besonders stark ausgeprägt. Bei peptischem und autolytischem Enzym des Serums ist sie nicht so deutlich nachweisbar.
    7. Die beim Menschenserum beobachteten drei Arten der Protease werden auch bei den Seren der verscbiedenen Tiere, wenn auch mit einigen Schwankungen, in weitem Umfange nacbgewiesen.
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