The relationships of circulating plasma volume (PV) to effective renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were investigated in reference to their interrelated changes induced by upright posture in normal subjects and patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. The following relation was obtained: (percentage change in GFR) = k(percentage change in PV). The values of k were 3.4 for the normal and 3.1 for the patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two. On account of the above relation the recumbent level of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)r was derived from the recumbent level of circulating plasma volume (PV)r as follows: (GFR)r=Kp [(PV)r]k, where Kp is a constant. On the other hand, the decreases (percentage) in effective renal plasma flow were biphasically related to those in PV. Mean arterial pressure rose in upright posture in many cases, but its changes (percentage) showed no correlation with the changes (percentage) in GFR. These results suggest that in a small decrease in PV, GFR does not decrease with the fall in mean arterial pressure, but with the power function of PV. The possible mechanisms of these changes in renal function are examined with special reference to the structure of renal arterial system.
Fifteen cases of multiple myeloma and 6 eases of macroglobulinemia Waldenstrom were followed up from 1957 to 1974. As for administration of drugs a low continuous dose regimen was mainly employed instead of a high intermittent dose regimen. 50% survival time from the onset of the disease was 18 months for multiple myeloma and 25 months for macroglobulinemia Waldenstrom. 3 cases of multiple myeloma are still living 44 months after the onset of symptoms. Cyclophosphamide and melphalan seem to have contributed much to the prolonged survival of these patients as well as improved supportive care.
The levels of LH, FSH and testosterone of three adult groups consisting of normal subjects, unilateral and bilateral cryptorchids were compared before and after LH-RH loading. It was found that both groups of cryptorchid had comparatively high plasma base line levels for both LH and FSH, particularly high in the bilateral group; and both groups responded to LH-RH loading. This indicates that their hypothalamo-hypophyseal systems were probably functioning normally. The plasma base line levels of testosterone were higher in unilateral cryptorchids than in the control group, and lowest in the bilateral cryptorchid group. But the reaction of testosterone levels to LH-RH loading was generally poor in both groups of cryptorchids, suggesting that, in cryptorchid cases, unilateral and bilateral, the capacity of the testicle to secrete testosterone is generally depressed, freeing central suppression. This probably accounts for the high values of plasma LH and FSH observed in such patients.
The lympho-reticuloendothelial activities of 54 cases of early gastric carcinoma were studied. Morphological blastoid transformation of lymphocyte by the addition of phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) was disturbed in half of the patients. The DNA synthesizing activity of lymphocyte was not stimulated by PHA-P in the cases of advanced carcinoma but it was stimulated in the cases of early carcinoma. The tuberculin reaction was negative in 30% of the cases of early carcinoma. The reticuloendothelial system (RES) activity studied through the congo red method revealed that 86% of the cases of early carcinoma had disturbed RES function.
The fifty percent alive period in Yoshida sarcoma-bearing and AH66F-bearing rats was prolonged by an administration in a single dose of 100 mg cyclophosphamide/kg body weight in a group pretreated with phenobarbital as compared with that pretreated with saline. However, there was little difference in fifty percent alive period between AH109A (insensitive to cyclophosphamide)-bearing rats and controls even when they were pretreated with phenobarbital. In chemotherapy with anti-cancer drugs, inductive or inhibitory effects of the drugs on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes should be taken into consideration.
The effects of prostaglandin E1 on fluid and sodium excretion, creatinine clearance and renin release were examined in 26 hypertensive patients including 9 cases of essential hypertension, 10 of renovascular hypertension and 7 of primary aldosteronism. When prostaglandin was infused intravenously in a total dose of 120μg in 60min, urine volume was increased in 70% of cases, and sodium excretion in 61%, but little changes were observed in creatinine clearance. The most prominent diuresis and natriuresis were obtained in primary aldosteronism (mean increase was 319% in urinary volume, and 222% in sodium output). The average increases in urinary volume were 61% in patients with essential hypertension and 97% in renovascular hypertension. And urinary output of sodium was increased by 63% in the former and 56% in the latter. The remarkable renal effects of prostaglandin El in primary aldosteronism were completely abolished after the administration of spironolactone. Significant elevation of plasma renin activity resulted from prostaglandin El infusion in essential hypertension, while no constant effect was obtained in renovascular hypertension and primary aldosteronism. The present experiments indicate that prostaglandin El has different effects on the kidney according to the types of hypertension and the effects correlate closely with patient's status of extracellular fluid volume or sodium balance.
Urinary kallikrein excretion was measured in 21 healthy subjects and 44 patients with various types of hypertension. The kallikrein activity was determined by the method of esterolytic assay. The excretion rates in normal subjects were 112.9±11.1 (S. E.) EU/day. The kallikrein excretion was decreased in patients with essential hypertension, the mean estimated values were 75.2±10.0EU/day. In this disease, however, an enhancement of urinary kallikrein was observed after sodium depletion. An obvious increase in kallikrein excretion was found in the primary aldosteronism. In primary aldosteronism and renovascular hypertension, one of the secondary aldosteronisms, there was a good correlation between the urinary kallikrein output and the urinary sodium excretion. The present data indicate that the renal kallikrein-kinin system, one of the renal anti-hypertensive factors, is suppressed in essential hypertension and is under the influence of mineralocorticoid levels.
Operative pyeloscopes developed up to now have been of limited effectivness because of an inadequate visual field and 'difficulties in handling procedure. The author has made up a flexible fiber pyeloscope with which it is possible to extract renal pelvic and caliceal stones easily. This pyeloscope has the following specifications: effective length, 630mm; diameter, 8.5mm; field of vision, 60°. In addition, the tip of the scope can be deflected 90° up or down from the basic position with a hand manipulated angle deflector knob on the scope grip. This allows the inside of the renal pelvis to be observed clearly from every direction. Through the channel of the scope, specially designed stone grasping forceps can be inserted into the renal pelvis, and it is possible to grasp renal pelvic stones under direct observation. The fiberpyeloscope has been used in 2 cases of renal pevlic stones, in which the pelvis was exposed by subcostal flank incision. The stones were successfully extracted with the scope which was introduced through a small incision on the renal pevlis.
In the present studies employing 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced sarcomas of C3H/He mice, cross-immunity among syngeneic tumors was markedly demonstrated by immunization with living tumor cells after repeated inoculation of gamma-irradiated (13, 000 rads 60Co) tumor cells. Cross-immunity was also markedly shown in the challenge of the other MCA-induced tumor, which was induced in the same mouse in which the immunizing MCA-induced tumor originated, by repeated immunization with gamma-irradiated tumor cells only. On the contrary, cross-immunity was not observed between tumors induced in different mice by repeated immunization with gamma-irradiated tumor cells only. As the result of the immunization with gamma-irradiated tumor cells only, common antigenicity among syngeneic tumors seems to be hardly demonstrated, and antigenic individuality among animals, in which MCA-induced sarcomas originated, seems to be remarkably demonstrated.
To check the usefulness of the hair mercury value for evaluation of intake of mercury, total mercury in red cells and organic mercury in hair were measured and compared on islanders whose fish consumption varied to a considerable extent. On both the male and the female, correlations of these two mercury levels were significant. The slopes of regression lines did not differ between the male and the female, but the level of hair organic mercury was higher in the male than in the female. Age-differences were observed in the red cell-to-hair relationship of mercury, i.e. the age-group aged 50 and over had much milder slopes than the group aged 20-49 in both the male and the female. The importance of age-matching was mentioned.
The incorporation of [2-3H] glycerol and lysolecithin labeled with [2-3H] glycerol into lecithin and its subspecies was investigated in epithelial and muscular layers of rat small intestine. The labeled compounds were administered in two ways: the intraduodenal injection and the injection into femoral vein. The incoporation of glycerol into lecithin was distinctly higher in epithelial layer than in muscular layer in both administration routes, but the incorporation of lysolecithin into lecithin showed no marked differences between both layers. Among lecithin species, dienoic and monoenoic species were highly labeled with the injection of labeled glycerol, and dienoic as well as tetraenoic species were markedly labeled with the injection of labeled lysolecithin. Anyhow, no marked differences were found on the incorporation pattern of any labeled compounds into lecithin between both layers and between both administration routes.
As pregnancy proceeded, humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells gradually decreased in a pregnant mouse. At the later stage of pregnancy, it showed significantly diminished immune response but it recovered immediately after delivery. The possibility was excluded by the hormone treatment that progesterone played a part in suppression of immune response in a pregnant mouse.