Analytical studies of spatial vectorcardiogram were performed with a spatial cardiograph of an improved type. In normal persons, the average length, deviation and depression of the maximum vector in QRS trace were 1.95mV, 146° and 40°, respectively; and those of T wave were 0.7mV, 60° and 30°, respectively. The trace demonstrated counterclockwise rotation in all cases. Quadrant reading was found effective for the diagnosis of heart diseases and the localization of the lesions. In quadrant vectorcardiogram, introduced and so named by us, the characteristics of a spatial vector loop were converted into a numerical expression, thus conveying a clear stereographical notion. Automatic analysis by the use of an electronic computer could symbolically express a spatial vectorcardiogram and was found to be a promising and effective method of reading vectoreardiogram.
In order to obtain sharply imaged axial transverse tomograms the focal spot of the x-ray tube, rotation center of the unit and that of the film must be arranged on a straight line. The device to meet the requirement is discussed from the theoretical viewpoint and assessed experimentally. Eventual lack of sharpness in the image is corrected by use of a unit with perfectly stable rotation axis.
An infantile case of tyrosinemia was described. The treatment with a diet low in tyrosine and phenylalanine was started at the age of five months. During ten months of the treatment, almost complete disappearance of clinical symptoms and signs, such as failure to thrive and hepatic and renal damages, was attained. It was suggested that an appropriate intake of tyrosine and phenylalanine ranged from 30 to 40mg/kg/day for dietary control of tyrosinemia in infancy. It was also pointed out that over-restriction of tyrosine and phenylalanine might cause a failure to gain weight and an increased susceptibility to infections.
The influence of the bone tissue on the homogeneity of dose distribution in high-energy electron beam therapy was evaluated by the absorption equivalent thickness (AET) of the bone against water. Bone specimens used had been obtained from the pelvis, sternum and ribs of four autopsy cases of cancer in fifty to sixty years of age. The energy dependency of absorption difference between the bone and water was practically negligible for the range of 16 to 31 MeV. The AET values were measured using 25 MeV electrons. The mean AET for nine specimens, of which the mean density was 1.18g/cm3, was 1.14. Therefore, the influence of bone absorption on dose distribution is regarded as practically insignificant in the electron beam radiotherapy of the chest wall or the pelvic region of cancer patients.
Dosage estimation for conformation radiotherapy applied to cervical cancer was discussed. Field size and shape in conformation therapy was freely change-able according to the shape and size of tumor. When the same size and shape of the field for therapy by Co 60 gamma ray was applied to each case, tissue-air ratio TAR was given by an equation, T=-0.00326d+1.035, where T is TAR and d an average depth. The concept of tissue-air ratio could not be applied to dose calculation in moving field radiotherapy by 6 MV x-rays, because the quality of x-rays emitted from a linear accelerator is rather different from that of γ-rays of the telecobalt unit. Therefore, the tissue-reference output ratio was defined instead of tissue-air ratio in the form of: Tissue-reference output ratio=Tissue dose/Output in a field of 10×10cm The output in a field size of 10×10cm is presented in the monitor chamber which is watched during operation. When the conformation radiotherapy was applied to 20 cases of uterine cancer with fields of the same size and shape, tissue-reference output ratio R was given by an equation, R=-0.0026d+1.048 where d is the average depth. The difference of calculated dose from measured one using a Mix D phantom was 3%, and the error is negligible in clinical practice.
A number of fractions were obtained from aqueous extracts of the human placenta. These fractions were tested for anemia-inducing activity, and their chemical and physical properties were examined. The results are summarized as follows: 1) An anemia-inducing substance (P-62) was extracted from the human placenta with 60% (v/v) ethanol and was precipitated at full saturation with ammonium sulfate. 2) Intravenous injection of P-62 produced anemia in rabbits even in a small dose of 0.02mg per kg of body weight. 3) The substance was almost homogeneous in the electrophoretic pattern. 4) Chemical analysis showed that P-62 was a mucoprotein.
In an attempt to investigate the prognosis of malignant tumors of the kidney, a follow-up study was made in 29 cases of hypernephroma and 11 cases of carcinoma of the renal pelvis over a period ranging from 3 to 9 years, and the following results were obtained. 1) The 3 and 5-year survival rates of hypernephroma treated by nephrectomy were 39% (9/23) and 30% (4/13) respectively, while those of pelvic tumor were 33% (3/9) and 33% (2/6). 2) In cases of these malignant tumors the prognosis was generally poor when: a) the patients received medical examinations late after the first symptoms, b) the tumor had attained a large size already at the first examination, c) extirpated tumor was also large, d) extracapsular spread had already occurred, and e) there were demonstrable metastatic lesions.
Anemia-inducing substances have been prepared from gastric juice (K-7 and K-8) of patients with gastric cancer, cancerous gastric tissue (MK-62 and MK-63) and human placenta (P-62) by means of ethanol or acetone fractionation, and the effect of these substances on the osmotic fragility of rabbit red cells in vitro was studied. These substances, which are mucoproteins, decreased the osmotic resistance of the rabbit red blood cells in vitro.
Adrenal venous blood was collected in dogs anesthetized with sodium pento-barbital and analyzed for adrenaline and noradrenaline by the fluorimetric me-thod. Metabolic alkalosis was induced by the intravenous infusion of 1M sodium bicarbonate or 1M sodium carbonate. By the infusion of sodium bicarbonate, arterial blood pH was elevated to 7.71-7.75. However, no increase in the adrenal medullary secretion could be observed. In dogs infused with sodium carbonate, arterial blood pH elevated above 7.81 and the secretion rates of adrenaline and noradrenaline were significantly increased concomitantly with development of metabolic alkalosis. In dogs, whose splanchnic nerves were previously cut, the infusion of sodium carbonate did not increase the adrenal medullary secretion, although arterial blood pH exceeded 7.81. Thus it is concluded that severe metabolic alkalosis increases the adrenal medullary secretion through the central nervous mechanism.
The selective administration of noradrenaline into the A-V node artery (posterior septal artery) induced the shift of pacemaker from the sinus rhythm to A-V nodal tachycardia following gradual shortening of PQ interval. When the A-V nodal rhythm was established, the selective administration of acetylcholine into the sinus node artery could not induce atrial fibrillation which was, however, regularly induced by the same procedure in the normal sinus rhythm. Further-more, sustained atrial fibrillation induced by continuous administration of acetyl-choline or carbachol into the sinus node artery was blocked by the administration of noradrenaline into the A-V node artery, while the pacemaker was shifted to the A-V node. It is suggested that the atrial fibrillation occurs when the sinoatrial node keeps its dominance over the subsidiary pacemaker of A-V node.