SAKATA, S. and MORIYAMA, M. Japanese Dietary Intake of Salt and Protein -Relating to the Strategy of Salt Restriction-. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 293-302 - The high level of Japanese salt intake, which has been the major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and hypertension, has decreased since World War II, and reached a steady level. In the present study, the dietary salt intake in Tohoku (once the district of highest sodium intake) and that in Kyushu (once the district of median or low sodium intake) were studied in relation to nutritional status by the analysis of sodium and urea-nitrogen excretion in 24-hr urine samples collected from 305 healthy Japanese. When the amount of urinary creatinine and urea-nitrogen were adjusted, the mean value of urinary sodium in females was significantly larger in Tohoku than in Kyushu, but not significantly in males. The regional difference of salt intake still remains, althogh it seems to be disappearing. Traditionally, Japanese high intake of salt was accompanied by poor nutritional status. In the present study, however, a significant positive correlation was observed between sodium and urea-nitrogen. The excess of protein intake would cause the excess of salt intake. Therefore, the strategy of further salt restriction should be directed to not only traditional salty foods but also nutritional status such as protein intake.
SEKIZAWA, K., AIKAWA, T., YANAI, M., ITABASHI, S., FUKUSHIMA, T. and SASAKI, H. Permanent Brain Damage Possibly Caused by Theophylline in TwoElderly Patients with Airway Obstruction. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 303-307 - Two aged patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who suffered convulsions that resulted in permanent brain damage during treatment with the recommended therapeutic dose of theophylline are presented here. A dose or concentration of theophylline lower than the recommended one should be considered in the treatment of some aged patients with pulmonary obstructive disease.
UEDA, M., FUJIMOTO, T. and WANIBUCHI, H. Epithelial Cell Clusters ofDistal Convoluted Tubules in End-Stage Chronic Glomerulonephritis. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 309-322 - Differences in the pathologic changes of the proximal convoluted tubules, the cortical segments of the thick ascending limbs of the loops of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubules in the end-stage kidneys with chronic glomerulonephritis were studied by means of both light and electron microscopy. Kidneys with chronic glomerulonephritis were obtained from 8 non-dialyzed patients at autopsy and 9 dialyzed patients at the time of nephrectomy prior to renal transplantation. Epithelial cell clusters with clear cytoplasm, decreases in the luminal and outer diameters of the tubules, and thin basement membranes were observed in both the non-dialyzed and dialyzed kidneys to varying degrees. The epithelial cell clusters were more extensive and distinct in kidneys from patients with a long history of chronic glomerulonephritis and/or long-term hemodialysis. Electron microscopy of the epithelial cell clusters revealed the absence or narrowing of lumens and luminal surfaces that were smooth except for a few short microvilli. Observation of serial sections showed that these epithelial cell clusters were derived from the distal convoluted tubules belonging to obsolescent glomeruli. This form of tubular change is quite different from the well-known atrophy of the proximal convoluted tubules belonging to obsolescent glomeruli in chronic glomerulonephritis.
HASHIMOTO, C. Studies on Synthesis of Interleukin-6 and Gammaglobulin inPeripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 323-335 - Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) proliferated spontaneously and secreted an elevated level of IgG compared with that of normal controls. However, the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by PBMC from patients with SLE with or without pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation showed no significant difference from those of normal controls. The levels of IL-6 secreted spontaneously from PBMC of SLE patients correlated inversely with the percent and the absolute number of CD19 positive cells in PBMC, but not with the levels of IgG and IgM secreted spontaneously from PBMC. There was no significant difference in the levels of IgG produced by PBMC stimulated with IL-6 and also in the levels of IL-6 synthetized by T and B cells between SLE patients and normal controls. These data suggest that IL-6 may not play an important role in the hypergammaglobulinemia in SLE.
SUZUKI, K., NAKAMURA, R., YAMADA, Y. and HANDA, T. Determinants ofMaximum Walking Speed in Hemiparetic Stroke Patients. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 337-344 - The time necessary to walk 10m with the fastest speed, the sway path of the center of feet pressure in station, and the isokinetic strength for knee extension of each side were examined in 29 hemiparetic stroke patients. The maximum walking speed of the patients was related to the sway path and the isokinetic muscle strength of affected side. The patients could be divided into two groups based on their sway path. The determinants of the maximum walking speed in the unstable group were the sway path and the isokinetic muscle strength of the both sides, whereas that in the stable group was only the isokinetic muscle strength of affected side.
FUKUSHIMA, T., OHRUI, T., ITABASHI, S., SEKIZAWA, K., AIKAWA, T., YANAI, M., SASAKI, H. and TAKISHIMA, T. Prologed Hypoxemia after 10min WalkingExercise in Aged Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 345-353 - Although the behavior and factors of exercise tolerance have been studied during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), little attention has been paid to the after-effects of such activity. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was monitored during and after a 10min walking exercise in aged patients with COPD. Neither baseline SaO2 nor mean SaO2 during exercise correlated to the 10min walking distance. However, the recovery time of SaO2 to the baseline value shows significant correlation to the 10min walking distance. Careful attention should be paid to prolonged hypoxemia after exercise in severe cases of COPD.
KOIZUMI, F., OHNEDA, M. and OHNEDA, A. Role of Autonomic NervousSystem in the Response of Plasma Pancreatic Polypeptide to Glycopenia in Dogs. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 355-362 - The effect of cholinergic and adrenergic influences on pancreatic polypeptide (PP) release was studied in dogs. Administration of acetylcholine resulted in an elevation of plasma PP, whereas epinephrine induced no increase. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia increased plasma PP in a conscious state but not in anesthetized dogs. The infusion of phentolamine or propranolol did not affect the response of plasma PP to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, whereas atropine markedly inhibited the increase in plasma PP. Likewise, atropine reduced the rise of plasma PP during the intravenous administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). We conclude from the present experiments that cholinergic mechanisms are of major importance in the response of PP to insulin- and 2-DG-induced glucoprivation, while the major role of the adrenergic mechanism was not proved.
OTOKIDA, K., YOSHIDA, H., MIZUNUMA, Y., YAMADA, M. and HIRAMORI, K. Multiple Myeloma Associated with Amyloidosis and t(1;20)(q21;q11) Translocation. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 363-365 - A 59-year-old woman with nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed as having primary amyloidosis based on the detection of amyloid deposition (AL-protein) in the esophagus and kidneys. Bone marrow aspirate showed plasmocytic proliferation, leading to a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (IgG λ-type). In addition, a very rare translocation t(1;20) (q21;q11) was seen by chromosomal analysis of both the bone marrow and peripheral blood.
TORINUKI, W. Ultraviolet-B Phototest in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1990, 162 (4), 367-368 - To evaluate the possibility of ultraviolet (UV) rays as an aggravating factor of atopic dermatitis (AD), UV-B phototest was performed in patients with AD. Resultingly, minimal erythema doses for UV-B were all within normal range and AD lesions were not reproduced by irradiation. UV-B may not be an important factor for skin aggravation in patients with AD.