Defective transport of imino acids and glycine in the intestine was demonstrated in a third case of prolinuria, basing upon the increased fecal excretion of imino acids and glycine after the oral loading with these amino acids.
Adrenocortical functions were studied in 15 infants under 1 year of age, operated on under hypothermia for congenital cardiac diseases consisting mainly of ventricular septal defect. Adrenocortical functions were examined pre- and postoperatively, by eosinophil cell count in the peripheral blood and determination of urinary output of 17-OHCS and 17-KS. Thorn's test was also done before operation. As controls, the same examinations were performed in general surgical cases of infants, on cases of open heart surgery in young children operated on under hypothermia and in general surgical cases of adults. Insufficiency of the adrenocortical function was found preoperatively in children and adults with acquired or congenital heart diseases of long duration, while in infants a latent hypofunctional state was observed only in cyanotic or very severe cases. The other cases, in general, had well maintained adreno-cortical function as was revealed in large urinary 17-OHCS output. Infants with congenital heart diseases seemed to have adrenocortical functions enough to tolerate open heart operation under hypothermia. Even in such cases, however, hormonal balances were liable to be disturbed as indicated by retarded recovery with conspicuous fluctuations of the eosinophil count and of excretion of 17-OHCS and 17-KS.
A questionnaire study on the sexual behavior of 1, 633 Japanese males was made. The subjects examined were composed of 733 miners and 900 physicians. The present results show that the intensity of sexual desire are correlated with the general physical vigor. The frequencies of morning erection and potency in coitus decrease steadily with advancing age. Physicians has higher frequencies of marital intercourse than miners. There is no significant difference between American and Japanese males in the frequencies of their marital intercourse in the same age periods. The duration of intromission was longest (12.0-14.2 minutes) in the both groups in the sixth decade of life. There was no remarkable difference in orgasm between the two groups.
Sixteen of 60 newborn infants were treated with aspartic acid and other 16 with orotic acid. The other 28 newborns served as controls. Oral administrations of each substance in a total dose of 200 mg per day, divided in two doses, were continued until the 4th day of birth. A significant decrease in the concentration of serum bilirubin was observed after administration of both aspartic acid and erotic acid.
Expiratory efficiencies of individual autopsied lungs, normal and emphysematous, were calculated with the expressions for expiratory mechanics derived in our previous report. The estimation of the pertaining parameters was possible on anatomical findings and by histometrical treatments. Estimated quantities were: elasticity constant a, total lung volume in relaxation V0, the mean density of elastic system E, the standard deviation of the density of elastic system σ, and total airway resistance R. Emphysematous lungs were generally characterized by increased V0 and reduced E. Concomitant fibrosis elevated a. The evidence was presented that R was rather reduced in emphysematous lungs when expiration proceeded without participation of thoracic activity. Distinct deterioration of expiratory functions was demonstrated in all the examined emphysematous lungs. In extreme cases the expiratory efficiency was lowered to 20% of the normal value. The major cause of the disturbance was an increase of V0. The reduction of E also impaired expiratory function. Increased σ exerted only insignificant influence on expiratory efficiency, but it effected an increase of transalveolar flow. A rise in the value of a caused distinct elevation of intrapulmonary pressure at pulmonary expansion and improved expiratory efficiency. Enlarged thoracic cavities in emphysema also contributed to elevation of expired volume. These compensatory mechanisms could not, however, restore the expiratory efficiency in emphysema to the normal level.
The reaction of the cornea exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke depen_??_s on the time span between exposure and study of the tissues. The corneae of hypercholesteremic rabbits are more sensitive to cigarette smoke than the corneae of normocholesteremic rabbits. The corneae exposed to smoke from filter-tipped ciagrettes are affected less severely than the eorneae exposed to smoke from untipped cigarettes. The corneal cells in vivo are affected by cigarette smoke mildly compared to that in vitro.
Electrical stimulation of the retina causes discharges of ganglion cells. The responses may be divided into two classes on the basis of their latencies, that is, a short-latency response and a long-latency one. With an on-unit the short-latency response was evoked by a corneopositive current, but the long-latency one by a corneonegative current. With an off-unit a reversed relation was found between the latency and the direction of the current. All four kinds of responses were remarkably facilitated by steady focal illumination and their latencies shortened according to the increase of light strength except for a short latency of an off-unit which was prolonged with increasing intensity of light. In the present experiment the record was obtained from the optic tract of the cat. The dependence of electrical threshold and latency upon the wavelengths of monochromatic lights was determined, using steady focal illumination. The facilitatory effect of light upon the electrical threshold and the latency was found to be maximal in the neighborhood of 500 mμ, but some units showed exceptional behavior.
It was reported in previous papers of ours that the patients with prolinuria had a specific defect in transport of imino acids as well as glycine in both the renal tubule and intestine. The present studies revealed that there was no significant difference in uptake of L-proline-C14 into leukocytes between the prolinuric patient and control individuals, and that, the incorporation of L-proline-14C into collagen of the skin from the prolinuric patient did not differ from that found in controls.
Gallstones occasionally contain black pigments which consist mostly of polymers of bilirubin derivatives. In order to study whether any bile pigmentmetal complex is also concerned with such black pigments of the gallstone, attempts were made at synthesis of bilirubin-Cu complexes. When free bilirubin and cupric chloride were mixed in a solvent mixture of chloroform and ethanol, a dark blue or black substance was formed. This pigment was soluble in ethanol and showed a characteristic absorption at 350mμ (Soret band) and two visible absorption bands at 595mμ and 645mμ. Infrared spectroscopy has revealed that this compound is a complex salt of bilirubin and copper having an analogous structure to metalloporphyrins, in which bilirubin has a ring structure of tetrapyrroles and copper is located in the center of nitrogen atoms of pyrroles. On the other hand, addition of cupric chloride to bilirubin in sodium hydroxide solution resulted in sedimentation of a black substance. This pigment has proved spectrometrically to be a bilirubin-Na-Cu complex formed by coordination of copper to sodium bilirubinate. Thus, it seems to be possible that the black pigments of the gallstone include some metal-complexes of bile pigments.