Oral glycine loading test to the parents of a patient with congenital hypergly-cinemia revealed that the elevation of glycine was more remarkable and that of serine less remarkable. It is, therefore, suggested that the parents have a minor block in the conversion of glycine to serine and that they are heterozygous for the disorder.
Mineral, vitamin, methionine and milk were administered to children receiving poor diet. The cystine content in hair was increased after dosing of mineral (iron, iodine, calcium and phosphorus) and vitamin alone or with methionine. After supplementary feeding of milk all the children had hair containing still more increased cystine content. Visual threshold values were improved significantly by dosing of mineral and vitamin together with or without methionine. But dosing of these nutrients could not bring the threshold values to normal range until the concurrent feeding of milk began, and then they showed normal value. Supplementation of methionine together with vitamin and mineral resulted a more increased weight gain and urinary creatine excretion than that of mineral and vitamin alone.
As sibling cases of one and the same family showed almost complete similarities in their clinical and pathological findings with uniform biochemical disturbances, it may safely be asserted that the disease is inherited in a single factor. As for the genetic ratio, the difference between the value calculated from the Haldane's formula and the theoretical value 0.25 proved statistically insignificant. So Wilson's disease is inherited in an autosomal single recessive pattern. Multiple factors, for example, three complicated factors may be excluded. In our country the gene frequency is estimated at 0.003 by applying the Dahlberg's formula, so the expected incidences of patients and heterozygous carriers are about three in a hundred thousand and about six in a thousand, respectively. The extraordinarily high incidence of the disease in our country may be due to the strikingly high frequency of cousin marriages and our diet.
This study is undertaken to establish the concept and classification of reticuloendotheliosis upon the basis of observations of the human materials and the results of basic experimental studies of the animals. Reticuloendotheliosis is defined as processes of proliferation, especially systemic one, of the reticuloendothelial system and is classified largely into two groups, namely reactive and idiopathic. The former group implies a functioning or secondary reticuloendotheliosis and is further divided into three subgroups depending upon their causes, i. e., infections, metabolic disturbances and other miscellaneous causes. The latter group contains processes of neoplastic proliferation of the reticulohistiocytic cells and the reticuloendothelium. Furthermore, idiopathic reticuloendotheliosis includes processes of a non-neoplastic proliferation of the reticuloendothelial cells. These processes have been interpreted mainly from the monophyletic or trialistic theory to be synonymous with monocytic leukemia or stem cell leukemia, but the authors disagree with these thoughts, because they do not recognize a hematopoietic potency of the reticuloendothelial system. In the idiopathic reticuloendotheliosis, the authors find out the existence of the processes of a non-noeplastic proliferation and give them a name of reticuloendotheliosis narrowly construed, which may be called as cataplastic reticuloendotheliosis according to Waugh's proposal. The reticuloendotheliosis narrowly construed is taken to imply a non-neoplastic condition which lies beyond the limit of reactive hyperplasia of the reticuloendothelial cells and which has not yet led to any neoplastic proliferation. The cataplastic reticuloendotheliosis can be fundamentally classified into two types, namely functional and cellular. In the functional type, the specific functions played by the reticuloendothelial cells are represented prominently and lymphoreticulosis hyperglobulinemia, macroglobulinemia, amyloidosis, Hodgkin's disease and myelofibrosis can be included. On the other hand, the cellular type represents entirely cellular proliferation, in which leukemic reticuloendotheliosis and Brill-Symmers disease can be contained.
The oxygen consumption rate (Qo2) of the limbic system, especially the hippocampus, of adult rats was measured under various conditions which have been applied to treatment of psychosomatic disease. The Qo2 of the brain was lower in female than in male rats. The Qo2 was found to be the highest in the diencephalon, next in the neocortex and the lowest in the limbic system. The hippocampus Qo2 was affected by various conditions, whereas that of the olfactory gyrus was not. The hippocampus Qo2 was raised during estrus, recovery from fasting, after glucose injection in the insulin-treated group and by administration of estrogen; while it was lowered during diestrus and by treatment with progesterone, testosterone and chlorpromazine. With noradrenaline and zinc gluconate the hippocampus Qo2 tended to decrease slightly. However, meprobamate, reserpin, γ-oxybutylic acid, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, change in the blood sugar level and electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve have no effect. In experimental neurosis the 90 minutes value of the hippocampus Qo2 tended to be lowered.
The amount of phosphorus in rice, though large in comprison with that of calcium, is not enough for the normal growth of rats and calcification of their bone. Moreover, the greater part of phosphorus in rice is phytin form of low digestibility. The authors have investigated the effect of addition of egg albumin and vitamin D to the rice diet on the availability of phosphorus in rice by rats. The experiments provide evidence that the addition of egg albumin to the rice diet greatly enhanced the phosphorus utilization as resulted from that of vitamin D. The phytase of small intestine has been activated by the supple-ment of egg albumin as well as vitamin D to the diet. The effect of egg albumin and that of vitamin D are cumulative. In contrast to the effect of egg albumin the addition of phosphate decreased the phytase activity.
By the use of the theoretical control procedure, the localization of phosphorylase a, phosphorylase b and phosphorylase kinase was studied in biopsy specimens of normal human skin. In the epidermis, a weak phosphorylase a activity and moderate activities of both phosphorylase b and phosphorylase kinase were found throughout the stratum malpighii except for the stratum granulosum. The stratum corneum was completely unreactive for these three enzymatic activities. In the eccrine sweat gland, no enzymatic activities were observed in a short portion of the epidermal duct. The remainder of the duct and the secretory portion of the gland were the most intensely reactive elements in the skin. In contrast, the secretory portion of the apocrine sweat gland was free of these enzymes. The active hair follicle had abundant phosphorylase a, phosphorylase b and phosphorylase kinase in and around the keratogeneous zone. In the quiescent follicle, the entire epithelial sac around the club hair had a moderate amount of those three enzymes.
ERG was taken from the covered or enucleated eye, the contralateral one being stimulated by Xenon light. The indifferent electrodes were placed upon the nasion, inion and the ears. Negative or positive potentials of the non-illuminated eye were recorded while the indifferent electrodes were placed upon the nasion, or the ears respectively. No response was observed while the indifferent electrode was on the cheek. With the indifferent electrode on the nasion the amplitude of ERG was definitely higher in monocular stimulation. The negative or positive waves recorded from the non-illuminated eye were potentials merely transmitted from the stimulated eye.
A simple method for detection of urinary formiminoglutamic acid was described. This method consisted of the following two steps; the first was conversion of formiminoglutamic acid into glutamic acid by treatment with strong alkali, and the second was manometric estimation of CO2 produced from the glutamic acid by glutamic decarboxylase.
The vascular reactivities to injected angiotensin II and D, L-norepinephrine have been compared before and during the administration of spironolactone, hydrochlorothiazide and potassium chloride. The vascular reactivity was increased by spironolactone or potassium chloride, while it was decreased by chlorothiazide. The changes of vascular reactivity paralleled the concentra-tion of potassium in serum. The initial level of blood pressure did not influence the response to pressor substances. These findings support the view that the extracellular distribution of potassium is causally involved in the maintenance of vascular tone.
This paper deals with the effect of pyloroplasty on the motility of the stomach observed by the use of electromyography. Twenty adult dogs were subjected to the Heineke-Mikulicz type pyloroplasty and the electromyographical study was carried out on the motility of the stomach following the operation. When the pyloroplasty was done on the normal stomach, peristaltic movement of the stomach was seen slightly weakened. Transection and anastomosis of the body or antral portion of the stomach was followed by the increase in peristaltic movement distal to the anastomotic line and the multiple discharges of the antiperistalsis were also observed. Under these conditions, addition of the pyloroplasty remarkably reduced the discharge of antiperistalsis. It is presumed that the clinical significance of the pyloroplasty as an additional procedure to vagotomy or various kinds of gastric surgeries is the reduction of abnormally excited condition of the antrum as well as antral spasm and antiperistalsis.