The development of a tumor with histological resemblance to human choriocatcinoma was observed in 2 out of 15 pregnant rabbits after destruction of the lateral hypothalamic nucleus by means of electrocoagulation.
1) The wet and dry types of normal cerumens obtained from healthy Japanese children at seven to twelve years of age were fractionated into the following four fractions according to the authors' procedure: Fractions I, II, III and IV were composed mainly of lipid, an unknown substance tentatively termed ‘substance X’, free amino acids and protein, respectively. 2) Identification and estimation of free amino acids in fractions II and III were made by means of ninhydrin reaction and dinitrophenylation, and bound amino acids of protein moiety of Fraction IV were determined after acid hydrolysis. 3) The content of free amino acids was four times higher in the dry type of cerumen than in the wet type: it was 15 and 4 per cent for the dry and wet types, respectively. 4) Following 18 kinds of amino acid were identified commonly in the both types of cerumen, and no qualitative difference was seen between them: leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, threonine, glycine, serine, glutamic and aspartic acids, glutaxnine, eystine, lysine, arginine, citrull ine and proline. 5) In the Fraction IV of the both types, 15 amino acids were identified as follows: Ieucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tryptophan, tyrosine, alanine, threonine, gycine, serine, glutamic and aspartic acids, cystine, lysine, and proline. No qualitative and quantitative differences were observed between the two types of the cerumen.
The lipid fraction occupying about 24 to 30 per cent of the ceruminal volume was extracted by the fractionation method previously reported. The lipid fraction from the dry and wet types of cerumen collected from the Japanese children was further separated into several kinds of lipid component by silicic acid column chromatography. Identification of the respective lipid components was performed by thin layer chromatography and infrared spectrometry. The yields were as follows: total cholesterol 8-10%, triglyceride 1.4-1.8%, free fatty acid 1.2-2.2% and unidentified polar lipid 5.2-5.5%. There was no qualitative and quantitative difference in the results between the dry and wet types. Fatty acid components of the purified lipids were determined by gas chromatography. Higher amounts of stearic and linoleic acids were found in triglyceride from the dry type. Instead palmitic acid was demonstrated in the wet type. The contents of the other lipid fractions such as cholesterol esters, diglyceride and monoglyceride were almost equal in both types of cerumen.
To elucidate the relationship between adrenal insufficiency and the so-called ‘lymphatic constitution’, the electron and light microscopic changes of the heart muscle, the changes of electrocardiogram and the general condition of adrenal-ectomized rats were studied. The adrenalectomized rats exhibited decrease in both the body and heart weights, cardiac arrhythmia, bradycardia and disappearance of P wave. Light-microscopically, the muscle fibers were atrophic, edematous and uneven in staining. Electron-microscopically, the mitochondria enlarged, their external membranes were destroyed and the electron density of mitochondria) matrix was diminished. The cristae decreased and became fragmented. Edema and fat droplets appeared around the mitochondria. Glycogen granules decreased noticeably in number. The myofibrils became slender and fragmented. The above results suggested that these ultrastructural changes might be induced by ischemia due to spasm of the coronary artery which was causable by parasympathetic excitation in adrenal insufficiency, and the changes seemed to contribute to reduction of the reserve power of the heart and to development of cardiac failure.
The author studied electron-microscopically myocardial lesions in thiamine-deficient rats. The changes in the heart muscle were decrease in electron density of mitochondrial matrix, swelling and rupture of mitochondria, reduction and derangement of cristae, mitochondrial degeneration, enlargement and destruction of cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum, appearance of large vacuoles and disappearance of cross striation in the myofibril. These findings suggested that the cardiac lesions in thiamine deficiency were caused by disturbance of energy production, intracellular conduction of excitation and myofibrillar relaxation, which resulted from the changes of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Neurogenic regulation of renal circulation was studied by cross circulation experiments on mongrel dogs. The stimulation of the afferent cervical vagus nerve caused either pressor response with a decrease in renal blood flow or depressor response with an increase in renal blood flow. That of the afferent carotid sinus nerve elicited depressor response with an increase in renal blood flow. Intravenous injection of pressor agents to the recipient induced elevation of systemic blood pressure with an increase in renal blood flow. These results were consistent with an effect of baroreceptor reflex on the renal circulation. The splanchnicectomy abolished these reflex changes in the renal blood flow. The splanchnic nerves were the major reflex pathway of renal vasomotor control.
The role of the vagus nerve on the renal circulation was investigated on mongrel dogs using the cross circulation method. The stimulation of the efferent cervical vagus nerve caused a decrease in renal blood flow in a half of the experiments. The denervation of the barore-ceptors abolished the change in renal blood flow on stimulation of the efferent cervical vagus nerve. The stimulation of the efferent thoracic vagus nerve did not affect the renal blood flow. The efferent renal vasomotor fibers were not demonstrated in the vagus nerve.
Intestinal smooth muscles (the rat and guinea pig ileum, guinea pig taenia coli and rabbit colon), and urogenital smooth muscles (vas deferens, seminal vesicle, urinary bladder and ureter of the rat and guinea pig) were observed with the electron microscope to study the innervation of the autonomic nerve in the smooth muscle tissue. In the intestinal smooth muscles, the nerve endings occurred as a large aggregate, but no single axon was present. In the urogenital smooth muscles, on the other hand, an abundant distribution of the single axons was observed among the smooth muscle fibers. The synaptic vesicles found in the axons of the intestinal smooth muscles were mainly agranular, whereas those of the urogenital smooth muscles were granular vesicles partly mixed with agranular ones. In the smooth muscle layer of the rabbit colon, the nerve endings contained characteristically large granular vesicles that could not be observed usually in other smooth muscle tissues.
The correspondence between the in vitro and in vivo anticoagulati ve activities of beef and whale heparins was studied using the assay methods of heparin described in the British Pharmacopoeia and the United States Pharmacopeia. The coagulation time was measured by Lee-White method for 2 hours after 0.5mg/kg of either beef or whale heparin preparation was administered intravenously to dogs. B. P. unit of whale heparin and its in vivo potency in dogs were 1.5 times more potent than those of beef heparin, whereas U. S. P. units of whale and beef heparins were the same. Thus, better correspondence was obtained between B. P. unit and the in vivo test in dogs. The authors conclude that the B. P. assay method may be better for the clinical evaluation than the U. S. P. assay method, when the whale lung or intestine is used in place of the ox lung as the source of heparin.
En the smooth muscle cells of the rabbit colon and of the guinea pig urinary bladder, pinocytotic vesicles were frequently observed occurring on both sides of two opposing smooth muscle cell membranes. The authors named this specialized structure paired pinocytosis. The regular appearance of this paired pinocytosis with zonula adherens (intermediate junction) or with macula adherenls (desmosome) along the contact surface of the smooth muscle cells was characteristically found in these tissues. The arrangements of the intermediate junctions or the desmo-somes in these tissues sometimes structurally resemble the intercalated disc of the heart muscle. The possible significance of this structure is discussed in relation to the problems of the intercellular conduction of excitation in the smooth muscle tissue.