By using everted sac preparations of guinea pig ileum, properties of galactose influx across the mucosal border were studied under various ionic conditions of the media. Mannitol was used as a marker of the extracelhilar space on the mucosal surface. In the absence of Na+ in the mucosal medium, the “galactose space” was almost the same as mannitol space, indicating the lack of uptake of galactose through the specific carrier mechanism. Galactose influx obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics at any Na+ concentration and it was also a Michaelis-Menten type function of Na+ concentration in the medium when examined at a constant galactose concentration. The observed kinetic properties were well explained on the basis of the kinetic model in which galactose was assumed to be transported only in the form of galactose-Na-carrier complex. The increase in Na+ influx associated with galactose influx was not significantly different from galactose influx. Na+ concentration of the serosal medium had no effect on galactose influx across the mucosal border. Choline and Tris, as well as mannitol, had no stimulating or inhibitory effect on galactose influx.
Alveolar macrophages from the rabbit were exposed in the culture medium to zirconium and aluminum salts. The specific activities of the lysosomal hydrolases, that is acid phosphatase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase and β-glucuroni-dase, were measured in the medium, whole cell homogenate, mitochondrial fraction, and in the supernatant fraction. A highly significant increase of these hydrolases was observed in the mitochondrial fraction from cells exposed to zirconium and aluminum salts as compared with those from control cell cultures. However, release of these enzymes into the medium was not much. The phenomenon of macrophage phagocytosis was observed morphologically in the cell cultures exposed in vitro to these metal compounds.
After inserting the Cu-IUD and plastic-IUD into the horn of the uterus of rats, vaginal smears were daily observed for twelve estrus cycles, but no abnormal changes were noted. The female rats with the IUD were exposed to impregnation placing together with male rats. Neither the Cu-IUD nor the plastic-IUD affected copulation, and a complete contraceptive result was obtained in these rats. There were no significant differences in any effect examined between Cu-IUD and plastic-IUD groups. In order to investigate the influence of copper on the penetration of sperm, we placed the rats with the IUD under direct observation and then exposed them to natural copulation. By examining various sites of the reproductive organs 30min after copulation, the hindrance of sperm migration by the Cu-IUD was confirmed.
The effects of urinary bladder distension on renal blood flow, blood pressure and plasma renin activity (PRA) were studied in 50 mongrel dogs anesthetized with chloralose. The dogs were divided into three groups. Group I was composed of dogs intact except for having undergone the surgical procedure for measurement and instillation of 0.9% saline to the bladders. Group II was composed of dogs whose bilateral ureters had been cut. Group III was composed of anephric dogs. Renal blood flow showed reduction during bladder distension in Group I and Group II. This reduction was produced not only by hydraulic mechanisms through the ureters during bladder distension, because the reduction was also observed in the dogs whose ureters had been cut. The rise in blood pressure and increase in PRA were observed in Group I and Group II, while the anephric dogs showed the rise in blood pressure during bladder distension despite the absence of PRA. Therefore, it appeared that the rennin-angiotensin system did not directly relate to the rise in blood pressure during bladder distension.
The lung tissue of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis was studied morphologically. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microliths were globular or irregular in shape or lobulated and in some loci were coalesced. The outer surface was granular or rough accompanied with deposits. The internal structures consisted of concentric laminar deposits. Frequently, two or more laminar structures were found on one cut surface. These findings may imply that the microliths grow by surface deposition and may coalesce during early stages of formation. In a high power view, granules were seen on the surface. Numerous scale-like structures and elongated electron-dense bodies inside the microliths were other peculiar findings of scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies, respectively. Elastosis in the alveolar interstitium and deposition of abundant glycogen granules in the bronchiolar epithelial cells were the notable findings of transmission electron microscopy.
By means of cineventriculography, contraction pattern of the ventricular septum was studied during electrical stimulation of the right atrium (RA), outflow tract (RVO) and apex (RVA) of the right ventricle and apex (LVA) and lateral wall (LVL) of the left ventricle. RA pacing produced a monophasic shortening of the septal hemiaxes after initial lengthening for about 40 msec from R wave of ECG. In contrast, ventricular stimulation near the septum (i.e. RVO, RVA and LVA) resulted in a biphasic and decreased contraction of the septal wall, in which an early preejection shortening was followed by a brief lengthening and second shortening. LVL pacing showed a monophasic and increased contrac-tion of the septal wall. The biphasic motion of the septal wall was likely to be related to the abnormal mechanical contraction caused by the abnormal conduction sequence of ventricular depolarization. On the other hand, the lateral wall demonstrated a biphasic and decreased contraction during LVL pacing, and a monophasic and increased contraction during RVO, RVA and LVA pacing. Thus, the biphasic and diminished contraction at the site of electrical stimulation was compensated by the monophasic and forceful contraction of the contralateral wall. It is considered that the ventricular septum plays an important functional role in regulation of cardiac performance.
Untrained healthy male volunteers were subjected to the study on the effects of exercise (bicycle ergometer, 920kpm/min for 30min) upon GOT isozyme (supernatant GOT, s-GOT and mitochondrial GOT, m-GOT) activities in plasma. Significant increases in the levels of both s-GOT and m-GOT activity were observed after the exercise (p<0.001). After 30min of rest m-GOT activity almost returned to its preexercise value. However, s-GOT activity did not return to its preexercise activity. The changes in the activity of GOT isozyme after physical exercise are discussed.
Transcoronary circulatory transport function was computed from the dye-dilution curves recorded simultaneously at the entrance (aortic root) and exit (coronary sinus) of the coronary circulation after the injection of dye bolus into the femoral vein in open-chest dog. The effect of coronary perfusion pressure and flow on the first (Δ_??_) and second (Δ_??_2) moments of the transport function was examined before and during intra-aortic angiotensin infusion. It was observed that the relative dispersion (Δ_??_21/2/Δ_??_) in the canine coronary circulation is the largest among the organ-circulations that have been examined by the investigators, suggesting that cardiac wall is highly heterogeneously perfused, and that the relative dispersion was variable depending on the coronary perfusion pressure and flow. It is concluded that sole measure-ment of the moment of transcoronary transport function such as_??_cannot be a reliable indicator of the coronary circulatory disturbances. The underlying mechanisms for the dependency of the relative dispersion on the perfusion was discussed.
Using the lung obtained from a 22-year-old female at autopsy, roentgeno-histological studies were carried out on serial alveolography. The pulmonary lymphatics were shown to play an important role in the wash-out of the contrast media. The contrast media injected into the alveolus was gradually transferred on and into the alveolar wall and finally entered the subpleural space. Inflow of the contrast media was further noted into the portion probably representing the “juxta-alveolar lymphatic capillary” according to Lauweryns. Since local edema occurs artificialy in serial alveolography, the functional aspects of fluid clearance may also be studied simultaneously unlike the conventional alveolography with its emphasis on morphological diagnosis.
Seven children with acute leukemia were given a live attenuated varicella vaccine and successfully seroconverted with minimal clinical reactions. One of them was vaccinated immediately after the contact with natural varicella and successfully prevented from natural infection.
Present study using immunohistochemical methods clearly demonstrated the presence of somatostatin-containing cells in the human placenta. These cells were located in the cytotrophoblastic layer, while the layer of syncytiotrophoblasts showed no positive reaction. With the progress of gestation, these immunoreactive somatostatin-containing cells disappeared. It was suggested that somatostatin or somatostatin-like substances play an important role in the maintenance of gestation.