The generation of the sugar-dependent increment of the transmural potential (the sugar-evoked potential) was studied in Li+-medium using everted sacs of toad intestine. A distinct immediate increment of the potential difference (PD) was observed in Li+-medium when actively transported sugar was added to the mucosal solution, though its maximum amplitude was smaller as compared with that in Na+-medium. The relative magnitude (ΔPD in Li+-medium versusoΔPD in Na+-medium) was dependent on sugar concentration and seasons. Distinct characteristics of the evoked potential generated in Li+-medium were its relatively rapid spontaneous decay (failure of plateau formation) and independence of its configuration of oxygen supply. Li+ had a small stimulating effect on the tissue uptake of glucose, which was abolished by an addition of 2×10-4M phlorizin. Tissue to medium concentration ratio for glucose never exceeded unity in Li+-medium. The results can be interpreted as indicating that Li+ can interact with sugar carriers at the mucosal border and stimulate them but it is not extruded actively out of the mucosal cells, and that the genesis of the sugar-evoked potential is associated with a movement of sugar-Li+-carrier complexes within the mucosal border of the epithelial cells.
In order to clarify the biochemical differences between the malignant neoplastic and benign diseases, the livers of the patients were biopsied under laparoscopy. One half of each sample was subjected to histologic examination and the other half to lipid analysis by means of a thin layer chromatography (TLC) and a gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The fatty acid profile of the total lipid prepared from the livers of 19 malignant neoplastic cases showed a higher content of C20:4, and a lower content of C14:0 and C18:1 compared with that of the 14 benign cases. Furthermore, the total lipid fraction was separated to triglyceride and phospholipid fractions by TLC. In the livers of the 19 malignant cases, the amount of fatty acid components in the phospholipid fraction was higher than normal value, but the amount of fatty acid components in the triglyceride was lower than normal value. More significant differences were observed when the ratio of the fatty acid content of the phospholipid fraction to that of the triglyceride was calculated for each patient. These ratios were over 2.20 in 19 out of 22 malignant cases, but were under 2.19 in 20 benign cases. Moreover, a case of relatively early pancreatic cancer and a case of early gastric cancer included in malignant cases mentioned above also showed ratios over 3.00. These findings will be applicable for the clinical diagnosis of the malignant neoplastic diseases.
The antipeptic effects of various anionic carbohydrate preparations were found to vary depending on the source and molecular weight of carbohydrate, the types and the grades of esterification, and minerals attached to anionic groups. Dextran sulfate inhibits all proteases separated from gastric mucosa. The antipeptic effects are assumed to be due to the chemical binding of anionic carbohydrate not only with pepsin, but also with substrate proteins basing on the results obtained in both in vitro and electrophoretic experiments. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis revealed that the peptic ulcer-covering ‘white coating’ contains plasma proteins. These findings are thought to indicate that anionic carbohydrate can be used for the treatment of peptic ulcer. The significance of chemical binding of anionic carbohydrate to ‘white coating’ is stressed.
The effects of blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation on the characteristics of the myocardial reactive hyperemia were studied in anesthetized open-chest dogs. Lowering blood pressure by means of graded hemorrhage, the reactive hyperemic flow decreased in proportion to the level of blood pressure. At a blood pressure level of 70 to 80mm Hg, the flow repayment decreased under 100%. Further lowering blood pressure to 60mm Hg, the reactive hyperemia almost disappeared. This decreased flow repayment did not recover in spite of the increase in blood pressure produced by blood transfusion, when blood pressure was once lowered to 60mm Hg or less. When arterial oxygen saturation was lowered by the decrease in the ventilatory volume, the decrease in the flow repayment paralleled to the fall in arterial oxygen saturation. The flow repayment did not reach 100% at the arterial oxygen saturation level of 60%. These results revealed that the myocardial reactive hyperemia was regulated by both metabolic and hemodynamic factors. When metabolic and hemodynamic conditions changed over the limiting level, the flow repayment did not attain 100% and the flow debt was not repaid completely. Further on the condition of the shock level, these changes in the repayment became irreversible and the metabolic regulation in the reactive hyperemia was lost.
Epidemiological and bacteriological survey of streptococcal infections in a rural prefecture, Yamagata, has been continued for 15 years. After the World War II, cases of acute nephritis were detected from 1955 to 1957, and these infections yielded the isolation of group C streptococci. The outbreak of scarlet fever in 1959 was caused by types 1 and 6 of group A streptococci. Thereafter, from the outbreaks of pharyngitis and nephritis, either type 6, or 12, or 22 group A streptococcus was isolated as a causative agent. One year survey made recently on the correlation of the clinical pictures with the isolated streptococcus strains revealed that the clinical manifestations of the children under 10 years old, att older school age, and of the adults were in the form of acute pharyngitis, catarrhal tonsillitis and parulent tonsillitis, respectively. These were infections due to types 12 and 22. Variation of types of group A streptococcus in these 15 years in Yamagata Prefecture was discussed on the basis of nation-wide isolation results of streptococci
A radioimmunoassay for determining angiotensin II in plasma has been developed using antibodies produced in rabbits immunized with porcine-gamma-globulin/angiotensin TI-amide complex. The method can detect 10pg of angiotensin II, and is not influenced significantly by angiotensin I. The mean level of angiotensin II in subjects with normal blood pressure and no significant abnormality in water and electrolyte balance, was 53pg per ml.
The splenic subeellular fraction which was effective in prolonging the survival time of rats with methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas (recipients) was prepared by the following procedure. The supernate of each recipient's tumor homogenate emulsified in sucrose solution was obtained by ultra-centrifugation (5000×g) at 4°. After injections of tumor-supernate into donor rats, the spleens of donors were removed. The supernate of the splenic cells was prepared by means of the same procedure as the supernate of tumor. The recipients, which were treated with the splenic supernate immunologically sensitized with recipient's own tumor, survived longer than control rats which were treated with the splenic supernate sensitized with tumor of the other allogeneic rats.
EEG examination was performed on 205 healthy old persons of more than 50 years of age who were engaed in their busineses, and the following results were obtained. 1) Abnormal EEG appeared more frequently as the subjects grew older. Its incidence was higher in women than in men. 2) The frequency of the basic wave in the posterior half of the brain decreased with advancing age. 3) The lowest and highest frequency of the basic waves were examined according to the age groups; cycles below 8.0 cps appeared most frequently in the seventies, less frequently in the sixities and least frequently in the fifties. 4) The appearance of the fast wave was most conspicuous in the sixties. 5) The incidence of the diffuse slow wave was less than 1 per cent. 6) The focal abnormal wave appeared in most cases in the temporal region.
The plaque formation by several strains of influenza virus was investigated in a clonal cell line of procine kidney (PS, clone Y-15). Among strains tested, PR8, NWS, and Lee formed well defined plaques and showed a linear doseresponse relationship, while FMI and Adachi did not. The method of this plaque assay is reported.