The mouse embryo bioassay (MEB) is a biologically relevant means of quality control (QC) in almost all modes of Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART). Such QC tests are essential to guarantee that all procedures performed and media used are of adequate quality which would not compromise subsequent pregnancy rates. Although most reports on the use of the MEB for QC in ART laboratories refer to its use in the QC of other parameters such as contact materials, contaminants and environmental parameters of the culture conditions, these same bioassays have been also criticized as not being sensitive enough to suboptimal culture conditions that may affect the outcome of human in-vitro fertilization. The aim of this review is to define the conditions of the MEB as a QC test as they may affect the outcome of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET).
To clarify to what extent death rate reflects the incidence of colorectal cancer, we calculated the age-adjusted death rates for colorectal cancer among municipalities in Aomori Prefecture for the period between 1983 and 1987, and examined the correlation with the age-adjusted incidences of the disease during different 5-year periods. In males, the age-adjusted death rate of rectal or colon cancer most correlated with the age-adjusted incidence in the preceding period by three or two years, respectively; however in females, the age-adjusted death rate best reflected the age-adjusted incidence of the same period. In males, significant correlation was lost if the interval exceeded seven years in both rectal and colon carcinomas. In females, the correlation became insignificant after an interval of four and five years in rectal and colon cancers, respectively.
Conventional mitral valve replacement (MVR) for patients with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) is usually associated with decrease in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). This study investigated the effect of preoperative LV size on LV performance and examined loading conditions before and after conventional MVR. Echocardiographic study was performed on 13 and 9 patients with LV end-systolic dimension of less than 26 mm/m2 (group A) or greater than 26 mm/m2 (group B), respectively. Postoperatively, the LV end-diastolic dimension and EF decreased significantly in both groups. There was a decrease in end-systolic wall stress after MVR. Preoperative LV forward flow estimated by the normalized aortic peak velocity increased significantly in both groups after surgery. The decrease in EF after MVR is not the result of increased systolic loading, and LV performance may not decrease after conventional MVR. Preoperative echocardiographic evaluation can provide important prognostic information in patients with MR undergoing MVR.
Gossypol (GOS) is a polyphenolic compound derived mainly from cottonseed oil, which has been found to have anti-fertility effects in males. It has been reported to induce disturbances of the hypothalamicpituitary axis, disruption of spermatogenesis in the testes, and inhibition of postejaculatory spermatozoa motility. The inhibition of human sperm motility by GOS has been documented both in vivo and in vitro, although the exact mechanism and possible reversibility of such inhibition is unknown. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the in vitro dose response of human sperm motility to GOS, and 2) to determine if the motility inhibition of GOS was reversible, using agents which alter the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), such as, 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP), and forskolin, and adenylate cyclase stimulator. Fresh spermatozoa were obtained from males of known fertility. Motile spermatozoa were recovered via the SpermPrepTM (SP) method and used further in all experiments. Quantitative and qualitative sperm parameters were recorded at collection, post-SP filtration and post-treatment. Motile spermatozoa were resuspended in either media (SP), or in increasing concentrations of GOS (10, 20, 30 and 50 μg/ml) as gossypol acetic acid in media. To study the possible reversibility of the GOS effects, spematozoa already exposed to GOS for 2 hr (at the concentrations mentioned above) were centrifuged and reconstituted in media containing either 10 mM 8-Br-cAMP or 100μM forskolin and measurements of percent motility and grade of motility (0-4) were taken at 0 time and at 30 min intervals for a total of 2 hr. Each experiment was replicated 8 times. The results obtained in this study showed that GOS inhibited sperm motility in a dose and time dependent manner. The motility characteristics of the 50 μg/ml GOS group were lower than all other groups (p < 0.001) and the spermatozoa were completely immobilized within 60 min. Cyclic AMP somewhat rescued the GOS-treated sperm, whereas exposure of GOS-treated sperm to forskolin had no such effects. The data generated in the present study suggest that GOS inhibits cAMP formation, which subsequently decreases sperm motility characteristics. At low concentrations (up to 20 μg/ml for 30 min), GOS inhibition is reversible and compounds that act to increase cAMP seem to be partially responsible for the reversal of GOS inhibition. However, GOS inhibitory effects at levels higher than 20 μg/ml (exposed for 30 min) were impossible to reverse, which suggest that GOS at those levels could be an effective agent for vaginal contraception.
Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD), decrease in crossed cerebellar blood flow (CCBF) (ml/100 g/min), is often observed in the cerebral blood flow imaging of hemiplegic patients. We studied the relations between severities of hemiplegia and degrees of CCD. severities of hemiplegia were evaluated by Brunnstrom stages (Br. stage) of lower limbs. Degree of CCD was evaluated as CCBF and asymmetry index (ASI) (%) of CCBF, which were calculated from technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxine (99mTc HMPAO) SPECT study using Patlak plot method (Matsuda et al. 1992, 1993). We have studied twenty consecutive patients. The CCBF was significantly different between Br. stage II and IV (p=0.0357), III and IV (p<0.001) and III and V (p<0.001). ASI was significantly different between II and IV (p=0.0357), III and IV (p<0.001) and III and VI (p=0.0238). Both of CCBF and ASI of the group of II and III were significantly lower than those of the group of IV, V and VI (p=0.0033 for CCBF and p=0.0087 for ASI). We conclude that this study indicate a close correlation between the sevreties of hemplegia and the degrees of CCD.
The cytotoxic effect of bacterial lipopolisaccharide (LPS) on bone marrow cells was studied using normal and zinc deficient rats. LPS is known to release cytokines from macrophages such as TNF, IL-1 IL-6 and induce metallothionein (MT) in the liver, kidney, heart, etc. The bone marrow in zinc deficient rats with low MT levels was shown to be highly injured by 2 mg/kg LPS administration, indicating a significant decrease of bone marrow cells and an increase of adipocytes. No significant injury was observed in the rats fed with normal diet by the same dose of LPS administration. Low zinc level or low MT induction in bone marrow cells was discussed with relation to the cytotoxic effect of LPS to those cells.
Estimation of filtration variables (filtration coefficient, perimicrovascular pressure, and reflection coefficient) is important for evaluating pulmonary microvascular permeability to fluids, especially when the lungs are inflamed, injured, or being preserved for transplantation. Here we report a new method for estimating filtration variables simultaneously in isolated rat lung lobes in zone 3 conditions (pulmonary arterial pressure>pulmonary venous pressure>alveolar pressure). We used Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6% bovine serum albumin for the perfusate and maintained perfusion using a constant- pressure circuit system. Pulmonary venous and alveolar pressures were kept at 2.5 and 2.0 cmH2O, respectively, and pulmonary arterial pressure was set so that lung weight did not change. Then we increased both pulmonary arterial and venous pressures by 3 cm H2O simultaneously, and recorded the weight gain. Next, we diluted the perfusate with Krebs-Henseleit solution to about half the original concentration, and recorded the weight gain. Using the Starling equation, the values we obtained for the filtration variables were filtration coefficient, 5.3 mg·min−1·cmH2O−1·g−1; perimicrovascular pressure, 1.1 cmH2O; reflection coefficient, 0.54. These values agree with values from previous reports. Since these 3 filtration variables are interrelated, this method for simultaneous measurement is more accurate than independent measurements are. The advantages of this method are that it does not require direct measurement of interstitial pressure or collection of lymph fluid. What we need to calculate these filtration variables are the initial filtration rates and the albumin osmotic pressures for perfusate.
We report herein an infant case of Ebstein's anomaly with abnormal diastolic filling pattern of the left ventricle. We also compare the case with a comparable case without such abnormal filling pattern. The patient, who had pulmonary valve stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus and mild mitral regurgitation, underwent transventricular valvotomy at 30 days of age. Postoperative course was uneventful. Serial Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed at 2 hr, 40 days, and 52 days of age. Peak velocity and flow velocity-time integral of early diastole, and ratios of the peak velocities and velocity time integrals of the early diastole and atrial contraction were below the 95% confidence limits of the normal controls. Our case suggests that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction may exist in the Ebstein's anomaly when it is associated with mitral valve abnormality such as mitral regurgitation.
Tsutsugamushi disease, one of the rickettsiosis, is known to be occasionally accompanied by elevation of hepatic enzyme levels. However, there are only a few reports on histopathological findings of the liver. We presented a case of Tsutsugamushi disease with liver involvement. A 51-year-old man suffered from eruptions and a high fever with a mild transaminasemia. He was diagnosed as Tsutsugamushi disease by detection of IgM class antibody against Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Laparoscopic examination showed a dark-brown liver with diffuse whitish markings. Microscopic findings were consistent with the features of non-specific reactive hepatitis: sinusoidal small lymphocyte infiltrations, mild disarray of hepatocytes and aggregation of T lymphocytes and macrophages in the lobule.
In order to elucidate the effects of hypoglycemia on cardiac and skeletal muscle, plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) were assessed in rabbits with hypoglycemia induced by i.v. injection of insulin. After hypoglycemia lasting for more than 30 mm, the plasma levels of ALT, AST and LDH rose significantly in 4 out of 5 rabbits reaching a peak at 24 hr. The plasma activity of CK rose remarkably and reached a peak at 6 hr after insulin injection in all rabbits. These results suggest prolonged hypoglycemia may cause myocardial and/or skeletal muscle damage, which can be ascertained by measuring plasma activities of the related enzymes.
Three cases of inoperable primary or recurrent colorectal cancer were subjected to pirarubicin pasting during radiotherapy. The tumor masses dissolved or greatly regressed, and the patients resumed their activity. The technique is simple, safe, and effective, and it may also be applicable to other approachable cancers, with or without the concurrent radiotherapy. Other anticancer chemotherapeutics, which do not harm normal tissue, may also be used.